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June 15, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Political parties need to debate long-term economic policies
参院選へ アベノミクスの行方 地に足の着いた議論を

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe says the pros and cons of the government's determination to speed up "Abenomics," the economic policy mix promoted by his government, to the maximum extent is the key point of contention in the upcoming House of Councillors election. However, it is essential to examine the results of speeding up Abenomics before evaluating the policy mix.
 アベノミクスのエンジンをもう一度、最大限にふかす。その是非を問う選挙だと安倍晋三首相は言う。だが、その判断には、これまでふかした結果がどうなったかをまず点検しなくてはならない。

Prime Minister Abe worked out a scenario of reviving the economy 3 1/2 years ago. Under the scenario, if the government and the Bank of Japan (BOJ) shared the goal of achieving an annual inflation rate of 2 percent within two years and implemented all possible policy measures to that end, Japan would overcome deflation, generate a virtual economic cycle and achieve the high growth that the country had previously experienced.
 3年半前、安倍首相が約束した経済再生のシナリオはこうだった。年2%の物価上昇目標を政府と日銀が共有し、政策をフル稼働させたら、デフレから脱却し、経済の好循環が生まれ、かつてのような高い成長が再現できる。

However, the government is far from achieving this goal.
 だが、現実は遠く及んでいない。

The inflation rate was minus 0.3 percent this April for the second consecutive month. The average real-term economic growth rate between 2013 -- shortly after Abe returned to power -- and 2015 came to 0.6 percent, far below the goal of 2 percent.
成果だけを語る危うさ
 「2年で2%達成」のはずだった物価上昇率は、3年後の今年4月、2カ月連続でマイナス0・3%だった。実質経済成長率も、政権発足後の2013〜15年は平均で0・6%と、2%の目標にほど遠い。

The public is becoming increasingly pessimistic about the economy. According to a survey conducted by the BOJ, 38 percent of respondents predicted that economic conditions will worsen in a year, close to 41 percent who answered so in a survey shortly before the Abe government was formed in December 2012.
 景気に対する国民の感覚も悲観的なものに逆戻りしつつあるようだ。日銀の調査によると、1年後の景気が今より「悪くなる」と回答した人の比率が最近は38%と、政権発足前の41%に迫る高さだ。

Despite these scenarios, Prime Minister Abe emphasized that Abenomics has produced positive results. He often cites the ratio of job offers to job seekers, which is the highest in 24 years, as evidence of the success of his economic policy mix. However, the rise in this index is attributable to a shortage in the workforce. There is a particularly serious labor shortage in the day care and nursing care fields where there is a growing demand for human resources.
 こうした現状にもかかわらず、安倍首相はアベノミクスの「成果」を強調する。その証しとしてしばしば首相が引用するのが過去24年で最高という有効求人倍率だ。仕事を探している人1人に対して、仕事の誘いが何件あるかという統計だが、上昇の背景にあるのは人手不足である。特に保育や介護といった、働き手がますます必要とされている分野で、深刻な人員不足が起きている。

It is difficult to secure workers in these fields because the number of people working is falling, wages are lower and workers in these fields are forced to work long hours. The rise in the ratio of job offers to job seekers due to such circumstances is never favorable but problematic.
 現役世代の人口減少に、低賃金、長時間労働が加わり、必要な人材が集まらない。そんな背景を抱えた有効求人倍率上昇は、問題でこそあれ、誇れる現象ではない。

The prime minister explains that Abenomics is producing positive results but that its effects are dampened by the world economy. However his explanation is inaccurate. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) revised downward its forecast for Japan's economic growth this year to 0.5 percent. The range of the drop and the sluggishness of economic growth in Japan is conspicuous as compared with Western countries.
 安倍首相はまた、アベノミクスはうまくいっているが、世界経済が足を引っ張っているとも説明する。だがこれも正確さを欠く。国際通貨基金の世界経済見通しによると、日本の今年の成長予測は0・5%に下方修正され、下振れの幅も成長率の低さも、欧米に比べて目立つ。

It is obvious that Abenomics is not making its intended achievements. Then why is the economic policy mix not working well?
 アベノミクスが、描いた姿になっていないのは明らかだ。では、なぜうまくいかなかったのだろうか。

The problem is that the government set unrealistic goals in the first place. Japan's economic growth rate is far lower than those of other developed countries. However, the figure is not necessarily too low considering that Japan's potential annual economic growth has declined to 0 to 0.5 percent.
 そもそも、非現実的な目標を掲げたところに誤りの始まりがあったとみるべきだ。他の先進国と比べたら確かに見劣りする日本の成長率だが、成長の実力が今や0〜0・5%まで低下していることを考えたら、必ずしも低過ぎではない。

The fact that Japan's potential economic growth has declined due largely to a decline in its population should be called into question. However, the Abe administration pictured a scenario of reviving rapid economic growth based on the assumption that a virtuous cycle of economic growth can be generated if Japan overcomes deflation.
 人口減少の影響などで成長の実力そのものが低下した点こそ問題視すべきなのに、「デフレさえ克服すれば、成長の好循環が生まれる」という高成長復活の夢を描いた。

The Abe government is still pursuing its dream of economic growth.
 そしてなお夢を追おうとする。

In September 2015, the second phase of Abenomics was unveiled under the slogan of "the dynamic engagement of all citizens." Under the policy mix, the government is aiming to increase Japan's gross domestic product to at least 600 trillion yen by 2020. This goal is based on the assumption that productivity will be raised to levels equivalent to those during the economic bubble in the late 1980s to the early 1990s. The goal is based on a hypothesis that even many experts believe is unfeasible.
 昨年9月、アベノミクスは「第2弾」にリセットされ、「1億総活躍社会」というスローガンが登場した。「2020年に国内総生産600兆円以上」を目指すという。達成の前提になっているのは、バブル期と同水準の生産性の向上だ。専門家が実現性に首をかしげる仮定をもとに算出した数字なのである。

One cannot help but wonder what would happen if the government were to speed up Abenomics based on such an illusion of rapid economic growth. It must be kept in mind that the most negative aspect of Abenomics could be exposed.
 こうした高成長の幻想のもとで政策を最大限「ふかす」とどうなるか。アベノミクスに内在する最大の負の側面が露呈するのはこれからだということを忘れてはならない。

The BOJ has kept buying a massive number of government bonds. The outstanding amounts of government bonds that the central bank has amassed have exceeded those owned by commercial banks and account for about one-third of the outstanding government bonds. The amount of such bonds that the BOJ possesses will likely continue to increase.
野党も対抗軸を示せ
 日銀内に積み上がっていく巨額の国債である。すでに日銀が保有する国債の残高は民間銀行の合計を超え、発行残高の約3分の1を占める。今後も増え続けることだろう。

Risks involving the BOJ's purchase of massive amounts of government bonds would be exposed when consumer prices rise and the BOJ is forced to decrease the volumes of government bonds that the central bank buys. The government bond market has been stabilized because market players believe that bond prices will not decline because the BOJ will continue to buy them. However, if the central bank suggests it may discontinue buying massive amounts of government bonds, the prices of the bonds could plummet.
 リスクが顕在化するのは、物価が上昇し日銀が国債の購入ペースを落とさねばならなくなった時だ。「日銀が必ず買うから値下がりしない」との前提で成り立っていた市場で、最大の買い手が退くシグナルを発した途端、つり上がっていた国債の価格は暴落しかねない。

To avoid such risks, the central bank needs to continue purchasing large amounts of government bonds. However, such a practice could cause the economy to overheat, and it could become impossible to control inflation. Such risks have heightened to an alarming level. If the BOJ is to buy growing amounts of government bonds in response to the prime minister's order that Abenomics be sped up, the central bank would find it increasingly difficult to find a way out of this policy.
 回避するには、引き続き大量購入を続けねばならないが、そうすると景気が過熱し、インフレが制御できなくなる恐れがある。現在でもすでにリスクは積み上がっているが、安倍首相の「ふかせ」の号令に沿って日銀が購入額を増やせば、一段と出口はふさがる。

Neither Prime Minister Abe nor BOJ Gov. Haruhiko Kuroda will talk about these risks. During the campaign for the upcoming upper house race, ruling and opposition parties should not only evaluate Abenomics but also address such potential risks involving the policy mix.
 安倍首相も黒田東彦日銀総裁もこの最大のリスクについて語ろうとしない。選挙戦では、アベノミクスのこれまでの評価だけでなく、顕在化していないリスクについても、国民の前で議論を深める必要がある。

Opposition parties should show new economic policies to counter the unrealistic economic growth policy line in Abenomics. In particular, it is necessary to work out policy measures to respond to the population decline as the country's population is estimated to fall by 10 million over the next 15 years. The opposition parties should address the issue of accepting more foreign workers, which tends to be viewed as a taboo, in addition to reforming labor practices and expand day care services to promote women's empowerment.
 同時に野党は、アベノミクスの非現実的な成長路線に対抗する新たな経済政策を提示すべきだ。何より30年までの15年間で1000万人の減少が予想される人口問題に対応した政策が必要である。女性の労働参加を広げるための働き方の改革や保育の体制充実に加え、タブー視されがちな外国人労働者の受け入れ拡大などにも踏み込んでほしい。

Policy measures that bring only short-term benefits to the public, such as the government's decision to postpone the consumption tax increase, and future visions that are overly optimistic could cause anxiety among members of the public. Due to such concerns, people continue to save money even though interest rates on their savings are almost zero while companies are hesitant to make capital investments.
 参院選前の消費増税先送りが象徴するように、目先の良い話と楽観的な将来像ばかりでは、人々は不安を抱きかねない。不安があるから、金利がゼロでも人々はお金をため続け、企業は投資に二の足を踏む。

Both the governing and opposition parties should squarely face the reality and hold in-depth debate on long-term economic policies.
 現実を直視し、将来までも見据えた政策論議に期待する。
PR
--The Asahi Shimbun, June 15
EDITORIAL: Brexit vote worst outcome for U.K., Europe and rest of the world
(社説)英国民投票 欧州の中で歩む決断を

The outcome of Britain's June 23 referendum on whether to remain a member of the European Union has major ramifications not only for the future of Britain and Europe, but also the entire world.
 英国と欧州だけでなく、これからの世界の歩みに大きな影を落とすだろう。
 英国で23日、欧州連合(EU)からの離脱か残留かを問う国民投票が実施される。

Sections of the British public have always harbored a deep desire to keep some distance from the EU. But if Britain actually does pull out of the EU, a major shakeup will be a certainty for the British economy as well as the global marketplace.
 英国は、EUと距離を置こうとする世論が根強い国である。しかし、もし離脱となれば、英国の経済と世界の市場が大きく動揺するおそれが強い。

And the political repercussions will be incalculable. A vote to "Leave" would create a rift in Europe's solidarity over many of its shared problems with respect to immigration and counterterrorism.
 政治的な波紋ははかり知れない。難民問題やテロなど多くの課題を抱える欧州の結束にひびが入るのは間違いない。

The EU's influence on the rest of the world would weaken, and that could well affect the way international law on human rights and democracy is upheld by the international community.
 EUの対外的な影響力がそがれ、国際社会で掲げてきた人権や民主主義、国際法による秩序にも影響を及ぼしかねない。

The departure from the EU by any of its current members is bound to reverse the trend toward European integration that has been in place since the 1950s.
 どの国であれEU離脱となれば、1950年代から続いてきた欧州の統合の流れが大きく後退することになる。

In this age of ever-increasing traffic of people and goods across international borders, any momentum toward isolation will render it even more difficult to resolve global problems.
 人や物の流れがますます国の垣根を越える時代に、一国に閉じこもろうとする動きが広がれば、地球規模の問題の解決はいっそう遠のくだろう。

Britain is a major power that ought to be a acting as a strong leader in encouraging international cooperation, not a nation that turns its back on European unity to try to go it alone. We strongly hope Britain will choose to remain in the EU.
 英国は、国際協調を力強くリードすべき主要国の一つであり、結束に背を向けて単独行動に走る国であってはなるまい。EUに残留する道を選んでもらいたい。

Instead of parting ways with the rest of Europe, we hope Britain will continue as a member of the EU and cooperate with all countries while seeking its own prosperity.
 英国は欧州各国とたもとを分かつのでなく、欧州の一員として歩み、協力を進めつつ、自国の繁栄の道を探ってほしい。

In past opinion polls, British public opinion tended to be more in favor of remaining in the Union than against. However, the pendulum has begun to swing in recent weeks.
 これまでの世論調査では、残留を望む声がおおむね優位だった。しかし、ここ何週間か離脱派が追い上げている。


One of the main reasons for this is said to be the immigrant issue. There is a growing call in Britain for it to be free of the EU's immigrant policy so that it can explore its own destiny.
 その背景にある大きな理由の一つは移民の問題だという。EUの政策に縛られず、独自に移民の流入を絞る道を探るべきだという声が強まっている。

As evidenced by the "Trump phenomenon" in the United States and the surge of ultra-right forces in parts of Europe, an isolationist mentality is spreading around the world. British public opinion seems to have been influenced by this.
 米国のトランプ現象や欧州各国での右翼の伸長など、国を閉ざそうという内向きの意識は、世界に広がっている。英国の世論も、そんな風潮に流されているようだ。

But we want British citizens to stop and think: That the only reason Britain managed to pull itself out of decades of postwar decline and achieve its present prosperity was that its openness to the rest of the world enabled it to benefit from the global economy. This reality can neither be changed nor denied today.
 しかし、立ち止まって考えてほしい。英国が大戦後の長い国勢の衰退から脱し、いまの繁栄を築いたのは、国を開き、グローバル経済の恩恵を受けてこそだった。そんな現実をいまさら転換しようがないだろう。

One thing that bothers us is that discussions in Britain about the June 23 referendum seem to be focused almost entirely on economic and immigrant issues, and we hear very little about how the Britons are looking at the big picture.
 懸念されるのは、英国内での議論が経済や移民など一部に集中し、大局的な論議があまり大きく聞こえてこないことだ。

What sort of relationship should Britain maintain with continental Europe? This is the sort of question that needs to be debated at length and in depth in the context of the history of civilization, until the public is truly ready to reach a consensus.
 欧州大陸とどんな関係を維持すべきか。その問いは、文明史的な視野の中で長い時間をかけて議論を重ね、国民のコンセンサスを築く性格のものである。

For the sake of the future of Britain as well as the rest of the world, we hope British citizens will make a decision that is objective and carefully thought out.
 英国と世界の未来のために、冷静な判断にもとづく決定を、英国民に期待したい。
The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S. should discuss tighter gun controls in level-headed manner
米乱射テロ 銃規制へ冷静な議論を尽くせ

The latest shooting incident is a despicable act of terrorism strongly influenced by extremism and a sense of discrimination. It can never be condoned.
 過激思想や差別意識の影響が色濃い卑劣なテロと言えよう。断じて許されない。

A man fired an assault rifle inside a nightclub in Orlando, Fla., killing and wounding a large number of clubgoers and other people inside. It was the deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history.
 米フロリダ州オーランドのナイトクラブで、男が自動小銃を乱射し、店内にいた客ら多数が死傷した。米国史上最悪の銃撃事件である。

The man, a U.S. citizen and a son of Afghan immigrants, was shot to death in a gun battle with special police units. The gunman allegedly made calls to police from the scene, in which he pledged his loyalty to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
 男はアフガニスタン出身の両親を持つ米国人で、警察特殊部隊との銃撃戦の末、射殺された。現場から警察に自ら通報し、過激派組織「イスラム国」への忠誠を宣言していたという。

As Ramadan, the Islamic month of fasting, started earlier this month, ISIL has called for terrorist attacks against the United States and Europe. An ISIL-affiliated media body claimed one of its militants had attacked a gay nightclub.
 今月、ラマダン(断食月)に入ったのを機に、「イスラム国」が欧米に対するテロを呼びかけていた。系列のメディアは、配下の戦闘員が「同性愛者向けのナイトクラブを攻撃した」と主張した。

It remains unknown whether ISIL did order the man to attack the nightclub, but it is highly likely that he was inspired by ISIL. The Federal Bureau of Investigation called the incident terrorism. The FBI must uncover the entire picture of the massacre quickly.
 犯行指示の有無は不明だが、男が「イスラム国」に感化されていた可能性は大きい。連邦捜査局(FBI)はテロ事件と断定した。全容解明を急ぐべきだ。

Not to be overlooked is the fact that the man had been questioned several times since 2013 by law enforcement agencies as part of their investigations into terrorism and was on a watch list. Wasn’t there any way the authorities could have foreseen the attack and averted it? This must be verified.
 見過ごせないのは、男が2013年以降、テロ関連捜査で当局の事情聴取を数回受け、監視対象になっていたことだ。事前に犯行を察知し、回避する術すべはなかったのか。検証が必要だろう。

The man was said to have lawfully bought an automatic rifle, an extremely lethal weapon, about one week before the atrocity.
 男は殺傷能力が極めて高い自動小銃を約1週間前に合法的に購入し、蛮行に及んだとされる。

Aiming at ‘soft targets’

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe naturally condemned the terrorist action, saying, “Japan will continue to advance efforts to eradicate terrorism, together with the United States and the international community.”
 安倍首相が「日本は、米国や国際社会とテロを根絶する取り組みを進めていく」と述べ、事件を非難したのは当然である。

In the United States, a married couple inspired by ISIL committed acts of terrorism also in December last year, using an automatic rifle. According to some statistics, the number of deaths caused by firearms totals 30,000 annually.
 米国では昨年12月にも、「イスラム国」に扇動された夫婦が自動小銃を使ったテロを起こしている。銃による死亡者は毎年3万人に上るという統計もある。

There seems to be no end to mass shootings aimed at “soft targets” — sites where large numbers of people gather, such as schools, churches and movie theaters.
 学校や教会、映画館など不特定多数が集まる「ソフトターゲット」を狙った乱射事件が後を絶たない。

If the situation is left unchanged, in which people can easily obtain weapons normally used by the military, the damage from terrorist incidents will only spread.
軍で使用されるような本格的な武器が手軽に購入できる現状を放置していては、テロ被害が拡大するだけではないか。

The Obama administration is calling for stricter gun controls. Yet due to opposition from the Republican-dominated Congress, such legislation has not been realized.
 オバマ政権は、銃規制強化を目指している。だが、共和党が多数を占める議会の反対で法制化されていない。

Priority should be placed on making it mandatory for those who purchase weapons on the Internet and elsewhere to be identified at the time of purchase, and on limiting the buying and selling of highly lethal weapons.
インターネットなどで銃を購入する際の身元確認の義務化や、殺傷能力の高い銃の売買制限が優先すべき課題だ。

The latest shooting incident occurred at a place where gay people gather. There are witness accounts that the attacker hated these people. It is significant that Obama said in a statement, “This was an attack on all of us,” and called for people to unite against such actions.
 犯行現場は同性愛者が集う場所で、男がこうした人々を憎悪していたという証言がある。オバマ大統領が緊急声明で「我々全員に対する攻撃だ」と強調し、国民の結束を呼びかけた意義は大きい。

With the presidential and congressional elections scheduled for November, measures to fight terrorism, responses to Islamic extremism and concrete gun control steps should be discussed in a level-headed manner.
 11月の大統領・議会選に向け、テロ対策や、イスラム過激主義への対応、具体的な銃規制策などを冷静に議論せねばなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 14, 2016)
The Yomiuri Shimbun
Britain’s continued membership in EU most sensible also globally
英国民投票 EU残留が世界的にも賢明だ

A national referendum will be held in Britain on June 23 for British citizens to vote on whether the country should stay in or leave the European Union.
 欧州連合(EU)に残留するか、離脱するか。英国の国民投票が23日に行われる。

It is an important decision as the outcome will determine the future course of Britain and Europe.
 英国と欧州の針路を左右する重大な選択だ。

According to public opinion polls, the pro-EU camp and the pro-exit camp are running neck and neck. We hope the British people vote for the country to remain in the EU.
世論調査では、残留派と離脱派が拮抗きっこうしている。英国民が残留を勝ち取ることを期待したい。

Should Britain leave the bloc, it will become a factor for causing economic turmoil such as jolting global financial markets. It was no surprise that the finance ministers’ meeting of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) expressed concern that the issue concerning a British exit from the EU is complicating the global economic condition.
 離脱が決まれば、世界的な金融市場の動揺など経済の波乱要因となる。アジア欧州会議(ASEM)財務相会合で、「世界経済の状況を複雑化させている」といった懸念が示されたのは当然だろう。

The major points of contention in Britain’s referendum are “the economy” and “immigrants.”
 英国民投票の主要な争点は「経済」と「移民」である。

The British government has released an economic forecast saying that a vote to leave the EU risks causing a recession and job losses. British Prime Minister David Cameron, who leads the pro-EU campaign, warns that leaving the EU would be a “self-destruct option” for the British economy.
 英国政府は、離脱決定なら、「景気が後退して失業が増える」とする予測を公表した。残留派を率いるキャメロン首相は「経済的な自傷行為だ」と警告する。

If Britain left, the country would have to renegotiate trade and investment rules with the EU, making the country’s economic outlook increasingly uncertain.
 EUとの間で、貿易や投資のルールに関して新たに協議を行う必要が生じ、英国経済の前途が不透明になるのは避けられまい。

While a fierce debate continues between the two camps, Cameron visited a Hitachi, Ltd. train factory in the Midlands. He said that if Britain remained in the EU, the country would be able to attract more foreign investment.
 激しい論戦が続く中、キャメロン氏は、英国中部にある日立製作所の鉄道車両工場を訪れた。EUに残留すれば、外国から更なる投資を呼び込めると語った。

Foreign companies, including Japanese firms, invest in Britain to build bases for advancing into the EU market, which has a population of 500 million.
 日本など外国企業が英国に投資する理由は、5億人を抱えるEU市場進出の拠点を築くためだ。

These foreign companies are setting up businesses in Britain, based on the premise that EU rules are applied in the country, irrespective of whether they are in manufacturing or the financial sector.
製造業、金融を問わず、英国でEUのルールが通用していることが事業展開の前提にほかならない。

Leaving may shatter unity

In light of such circumstances, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe told Cameron when he visited Britain in May that it would be desirable for Britain to remain in the EU.
 安倍首相は5月の訪英時に、こうした事情を踏まえ、EU残留が望ましいと伝えている。

On the other hand, the pro-exit camp asserts that if Britain left the EU, the country would be able to control the flow of immigrants. The country cannot block immigrants from other EU member countries as long as it remains in the bloc. The strategy of the pro-exit campaigners is to insist that the increase in foreign workers threatens the country’s employment and welfare situations.
 一方、離脱派は、EU脱退で「移民流入を制限できるようになる」と主張する。EUにとどまる限り、他の加盟国からの移民を拒めないからだ。外国人労働者の増加により、雇用や福祉を脅かされると訴える作戦に出ている。

Should Britain leave the bloc, the EU also would suffer incalculable damage.
 英国が離脱すれば、EUも計り知れない打撃を受けよう。

In various parts of Europe that face a massive influx of refugees, political parties skeptical of the EU and voicing anti-refugee and anti-immigrant calls are gaining influence.
 欧州は、難民の大量流入に直面し、反難民・移民を唱えるEU懐疑派政党が各地で伸長している。

If Britain voted to leave the bloc, it would lend support to such a movement and could lead to a decline in the EU’s power for integration.
英国が離脱を決めれば、その勢いに拍車がかかり、EUの求心力低下につながりかねない。

In dealing with Iran’s nuclear issue and in imposing sanctions on Russia over the Ukrainian issue, cooperation between the United States and Europe played a pivotal role. Should Britain leave the EU, the bloc may see its influence decline also in diplomatic and security areas, as Britain has historically strong relations with the United States.
 イラン核問題への対処やウクライナ問題での対ロシア制裁は、米欧の連携が主軸となった。歴史的に米国と絆が強い英国を失えば、EUは、外交・安全保障面でも影響力が弱まるのではないか。

U.S. President Barack Obama also has called for Britain to stay in the EU, saying Britain is at its best when “helping to lead” a strong EU.
 オバマ米大統領も「英国は強い欧州を先導してこそ本領を発揮する」と強調し、残留を求めた。

The EU is a bastion of an international order based on such values as democracy, freedom and a market economy. Shaking the entity’s stability must be avoided.
 EUは、民主主義や自由などの価値観と市場経済に基づく国際秩序の担い手である。その安定が揺らぐ事態は避けねばならない。
June 12, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
香山リカのココロの万華鏡 : 脱差別 日本も仲間入り /東京
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Discrimination has no place in Japan

The so-called anti-hate speech law has come into force.
 いわゆるヘイトスピーチ対策法が施行された。

When I first saw a hate speech demonstration, with marchers barking vicious slogans aimed primarily at Japan's Korean residents, I could barely believe my eyes. On the internet, too, people toss out discriminatory comments against other foreign citizens, against Japan's Ainu and Okinawan peoples, against those receiving welfare benefits and the disabled. There are those who spread false rumors that these people are getting unfair financial aid.
 主に在日韓国・朝鮮人の方に対して差別的言動を大声で叫びながら集団で道路を歩くヘイトスピーチデモを最初に目にしたときは「まさかこれが現実とは」を目を疑った。さらにネットには、ほかの国の人たち、日本人であるアイヌ民族や沖縄の人たち、生活保護を受給していたり障害を持っていたりする人たちに対しても、平気で差別の言葉を投げかけたり「不当に手当をもらっている」といったデマを拡散したりする人たちがいる。

The new hate speech law is what you might call a "principle law," as it has no provisions for punishing violators. Furthermore, it only protects "those originally from nations outside this country" who are "living legally in Japan." As such, it does not outlaw discrimination against Japanese citizens or foreigners applying for refugee status, among other groups. However, the supplementary resolution that accompanied passage of the law states, "It would be a mistake to believe that discrimination against groups not specifically mentioned in the law is forgivable." I suppose we can say that the Diet essentially stated, "Discrimination is unforgiveable in Japan."
 今回の法律は理念法と呼ばれ、実際にそれを破った人に罰則を与えるものではない。また、その対象が「本邦外出身者」「適法に日本に居住する人」となっているので、日本人で差別を受けている人や難民申請をしている人などは該当しないことになっている。ただ、法律とともに出された「付帯決議」には「定義以外のものであれば差別は許されるというのは誤り」とあり、国会が「日本では差別は許さない」と認めたと考えてよいだろう。

In fact, I have a lot of people struggling with discrimination come to my practice; people discriminated against because they are foreigners, because they are ill, because they are single mothers. Some are treated unfairly at work or in the areas where they live, are looked upon with frigid eyes that seem to say, "You are not like us," all for some aspect of themselves that they cannot change.
 診察室にも差別で苦しむ人は大勢やって来る。外国人だから、病気を持っているから、シングルマザーだから。本人にはどうしようもないことで「あなたは私たちとは違う」と白い目で見られ、職場や地域で不利な扱いを受けることもある。

What's more, the reasons given for this prejudice are usually untrue. For example, the romantic partner of one of my patients didn't want to get married "because depression is inherited." This is simply not true, and in the end I had the couple come in together to explain things. When the session was done, the reluctant party was reluctant no more, leaving with a smile and promising to "explain this to my parents as well." Arbitrary "those people are all so-and-so" labels are very often founded on basic errors of fact.
 しかもたいていの場合、差別の理由として考えられていることは間違いだ。たとえば、「うつ病は遺伝するから」と結婚に反対された患者さんがいたが、婚約者にも来てもらってそれは誤りであることを丁寧に説明したら、「わかりました。両親にも説明します」と明るい顔でこたえてくれた。「あの人はこれこれだから」という決めつけのほとんどは、こういう単純な間違いに基づいている。

I have read a paper based on research conducted outside Japan that showed that ethnically diverse workplaces produce more creative ideas than those dominated by a single race or nationality. In contrast to working with people who understand one another from the get-go, getting people with wildly varying perspectives and ways of thinking together in one place apparently sparks the easy flow of groundbreaking ideas.
 海外の研究で「ある会社で、同じ国籍、民族の人ばかりの部署より、多様な人々が集まった部署のほうが創造的なアイデアが多く出た」という論文を読んだことがある。いろいろな考え、立場の人たちと一生懸命コミュニケーションするほうが、最初からわかり合っている関係で仕事をするよりも、刺激が多く画期的な意見が出やすいというのだ。

So, talk to someone different than yourself. Even if that's impossible right away, you will come to understand one another somehow. It's time to put an end to knee-jerk hatreds, to discrimination and pushing away our fellow human beings. With the new hate speech law, Japan has finally become a country where we can say, "We will not tolerate discrimination."
 自分と違う人と話そう。すぐには無理だとしても、なんとかわかり合おう。最初から毛ぎらいしたり差別して追い出したりするのは、もうやめよう。法律ができたことで、ようやく日本も「私たちは差別を許さない」と宣言する国の仲間入りができた。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist) (精神科医)
毎日新聞2016年6月7日 地方版
June 11, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Upper house election opportunity to review Japan's democratic politics
参院選へ 安倍首相の手法 民主政治を問い直す時

The battle between ruling and opposition parties has begun as the campaign for the July 10 House of Councillors election is scheduled to kick off on June 22.
 参院選の公示が22日に迫り、7月10日の投開票日に向けた与野党の戦いが始まっている。

Three and a half years have passed since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe returned to power in December 2012. As Abe is predominant in the political world, his government has taken advantage of its majority in the Diet to overwhelm opposition without even attempting to form consensus. After winning an election, the Abe government has acted as if it had been given carte blanche.
 安倍晋三首相が政権トップに返り咲いて3年半。「安倍首相1強」と呼ばれる状況の下、選挙で勝てば、すべての政策が白紙委任されたとばかりに合意形成の努力を怠り、数の力で押し切る政治の姿を私たちはしばしば見てきた。

One cannot help but wonder whether Prime Minister Abe will retain his predominance following the upper house race.
 そうした「1強」体制が今後も続くのかどうか。

Attention is focused on how voters will evaluate the past 3 1/2 years of Abe government. Moreover, questions should be raised over how democratic politics should work.
参院選はこの3年半を有権者がどう評価するかが焦点となる。ひいては民主政治のあり方そのものを問う選挙である。

選挙は「隠れみの」か

When he announced at a June 1 news conference that the government has decided to once again postpone a consumption tax increase from 8 percent to 10 percent, Prime Minister Abe said he will "seek voters' trust" in his government over the decision in the upper house election. "The biggest point of contention is whether to speed up Abenomics (the economic policy mix promoted by his administration) or roll it back," he told reporters.
 消費増税を再延期する方針について、安倍首相は今月1日の記者会見で「参院選で国民の信を問う」と語り、「アベノミクスを加速するか、それとも後戻りするか。これが最大の争点だ」と力説した。

The phrase, "seek the voters' trust" usually means dissolving the House of Representatives for a general election that could lead to a change of government. When he decided in November 2014 to delay the consumption tax hike the first time, the prime minister dissolved the lower house for just that reason. This time, he is trying to ask if voters support his latest decision through the upper house race. The prime minister may have wanted to show his determination to stake his political life on the decision.
 「信を問う」は通常、政権交代に直接つながる衆院選で使う言葉だ。2014年11月、最初に増税を延期した際、首相は「信を問う」と衆院を解散している。今回は参院選だが、同様に進退をかける覚悟を示したかったのかもしれない。

However, one should keep in mind that Abe has repeatedly sought the voters' verdict on Abenomics in particular.
 だが忘れてならないのは「経済政策を前面に打ち出して信を問う」のは、これまでも繰り返されてきた首相のパターンだということだ。

In the last upper house election in 2013, Abe emphasized the achievements of the "three arrows" of his government's economic policy mix, while he stressed during the December 2014 lower house race that Abenomics is "the only way" to achieve economic recovery.
 首相は13年の前回参院選では政権の経済政策である「三本の矢」の成果を強調し、一昨年末の衆院選では「景気回復、この道しかない」とアピールした。選挙はともに自民党が大勝した。

After these elections, however, the Abe administration placed priority on other policy issues.
ところが選挙の後はどうだったか。

Following the last upper house election, his administration hastily tried to pass the Act on the Protection of Specially Designated Secrets allowing the government to keep secret not only sensitive security information but also information disadvantageous to the administration, which could threaten freedom of speech. Also fresh in people's memory is the ruling coalition's railroading of security-related legislation that could run counter to Japan's war-renouncing Constitution. The ruling coalition did not bring these policies up for debate in elections held shortly before the laws were passed.
 前回の参院選直後の臨時国会で安倍政権が成立を急いだのは、国の安全保障にかかわる情報だけでなく、政権に都合の悪い情報も秘密にして言論の自由を制限しかねない特定秘密保護法だった。そして昨年、憲法を軽視して安全保障関連法の成立に突き進んだのは記憶に新しい。いずれも直前の選挙ではあまり語られなかったテーマだ。

Before the enactment of the security laws, the government appointed a Foreign Ministry bureaucrat who shares views on the issue with the prime minister as head of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau. This was a blatant bid to smooth the reinterpretation of the Constitution to open the way for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense. The Abe Cabinet then decided in July 2014 to change the interpretation of Article 9 of the supreme law.
 特に安保法制では、首相の考えに近い外務官僚を内閣法制局長官に起用する異例の人事を行ったうえで、14年7月、歴代政権が認めてこなかった集団的自衛権の行使を一部認める憲法解釈の変更を閣議決定した。

In other words, the Abe government carefully laid the groundwork to drastically change Japan's security policy while carefully preventing the topic from being a key issue during elections.
選挙の争点になるのを意識的に避けながら安保政策を大転換させる布石を打ってきたといっていい。

These are the issues that require thorough explanation as they could split public opinion. The Abe government appears to have used the economic policy mix as a cover to change Japan's security policy and achieve other of the prime minister's most cherished aims.
 本来はこうした国論を二分するようなテーマこそ選挙できちんと説明すべきだろう。「経済」は首相の持論を推し進めるための隠れみのになってきたように思える。

 今回はどうだろう。

Prime Minister Abe's ultimate political goal is undoubtedly to revise the pacifist postwar Constitution. Nevertheless, the prime minister has failed to clarify specifically which clauses he wants to change and how. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) is reluctant to make the issue a point of contention during the upper house election campaign.
 首相の最大目標が憲法改正であるのは間違いない。ところが首相は憲法のどこを変えたいのか具体的には語らず、自民党も改憲を選挙の争点にすることには消極的だ。

Still, if the ruling LDP-Komeito coalition plus other parties in favor of constitutional amendment -- such as the Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka) -- won a combined two-thirds of the seats in the upper chamber, the prime minister would certainly speed up moves to change the Constitution. Constitutional revisions can be proposed only if supported by two-thirds of all members of both Diet chambers. Voters should keep this in mind.
 しかし、今回の選挙で自民、公明の与党と憲法改正に前向きな、おおさか維新の会などを合わせ、改憲発議に必要な3分の2以上の勢力を参院でも確保すれば、首相は従来のパターン通り憲法改正の動きを加速させるはずだ。私たちはそれを認識しておく必要がある。

異論排除せず議論を

Prime Minister Abe's claim at the June 1 news conference that the government would only postpone the consumption tax hike because the world economy is on the brink of crisis, while Abenomics is producing steady results here in Japan, is far from convincing.
 アベノミクスは順調だが、世界経済が危機に直面するかもしれないから増税は再延期する。これまでの約束とは異なる新しい判断だ−−という先の会見での首相の説明が説得力を欠いていたのは指摘した通りだ。

It is apparently not the prime minister's style to admit his own failures. This appears related to his tendency not to listen to different opinions.
 自らの非を認めようとしないのも首相のスタイルなのだろう。それはとかく異論を排除しがちな首相の姿勢と共通しているようにみえる。

Abe has occasionally shown himself to be a realist, such as when he signed the Japan-South Korea agreement late last year on the comfort women issue, over which Tokyo compromised to a certain extent. He was able to make that compromise because his government has a strong power base.
 日本側も譲歩した慰安婦問題に関する昨年末の日韓合意をはじめ、時に首相は現実的な面も見せてきた。強い政権だからこそ譲歩ができたともいえる。

However, he has certainly made light of Diet discussions, as was shown when he jeered at an opposition party legislator during Diet deliberations, saying, "Ask your question quickly." Intraparty discussions among those who have diverse opinions within the LDP have disappeared.
 だが国会で野党議員に対し「早く質問しろよ」と自らやじを飛ばすなど、首相が議論を軽んじてきたのは確かだ。自民党内でもかつてのような多様な議論はなくなった。

The prime minister also tends to simplistic divisions between friend and foe. Since the inauguration of the Abe government, there have been moves within his Cabinet that look designed to intervene in TV news coverage critical of the prime minister.
 敵か味方か。単純に決めつける姿勢も目立つ。首相に批判的なテレビ局に対し、従来にはなかった介入まがいの言動が見られるようになったのも安倍政権になってからだ。

The minimum voting age will be lowered from 20 to 18 in time for the upper house election. In preparation, supplementary teaching material on democratic politics, compiled jointly by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry and the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry, have been distributed to all high school students across the country.
 参院選では初めて18、19歳が有権者になる。これに伴い、文部科学、総務両省が作成した副教材が全高校生に配布されている。

The material says democratic politics means politics through discussion, and that a final decision is generally made by a majority.
 副教材は、民主政治とは話し合いの政治であり、最終的には多数決で合意を形成するのが一般的だ、と記したうえで、こう続けている。

At the same time, it goes on to say, "To make good use of decisions by a majority, diverse opinions should be expressed and if minority opinions are right, they should be utilized as much as possible. Policy measures can be more effective if people are convinced by the decisions."
 「ただし、多数決が有効に生かされるためには、多様な意見が出し尽くされ(略)、少数意見が正しいものであれば、できるだけ吸収するというものでなければなりません。納得することで実効性も高まります」

This is the basics of democratic politics. Needless to say, opposition parties cannot win support from voters if they only voice stiff opposition to government policies. Specific policy discussions should be held during the upper house election campaign.
 まさにそれが民主政治の基本だろう。無論、野党も「反対だ」と声高に叫んでいるだけでは有権者の支持は得られない。より具体的な議論を戦わせる参院選にしたい。
The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beware of China’s increasingly dangerous provocation in E. China Sea
尖閣沖中国軍艦 危険増した挑発に警戒せよ

How far does China intend to escalate tensions with Japan? China’s latest behavior around Japanese territorial waters cannot be overlooked.
 日中間の緊張をどこまでエスカレートさせるのか。中国の振る舞いは看過できない。

A Chinese Navy frigate sailed for about 2 hours and 20 minutes in the contiguous zone just outside Japanese territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture before dawn Thursday. The Chinese warship navigated the contiguous zone in defiance of a warning by the Maritime Self-Defense Force.
 中国海軍のフリゲート艦1隻が9日未明、約2時間20分にわたって、沖縄県の尖閣諸島周辺の接続水域内を航行した。海上自衛隊の警告にも応じなかった。

China’s intrusions into Japanese territorial waters around the Senkakus have been made repeatedly by its coast guard vessels. This is the first time a Chinese naval vessel has entered the contiguous zone. It can be said that China’s provocative actions have entered a new phase.
 中国はこれまで尖閣周辺の領海で海警局の公船の侵入を繰り返してきた。軍の艦艇が接続水域に入ったのは初めてだ。挑発行動が新たな段階に入ったと言えよう。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga denounced China’s action, saying, “It was an action that unilaterally heightens tensions, and we are deeply concerned about it.” Suga emphasized Japan’s sovereignty over the islands by saying, “The Senkaku Islands are an inherent territory of Japan both historically and under international law.” Immediately after the incident, Vice Foreign Minister Akitaka Saiki summoned Chinese Ambassador to Japan Cheng Yonghua to the Foreign Ministry and lodged a stern protest against the Chinese action. Saiki’s action was natural.
 菅官房長官は「緊張を一方的に高める行為で、深刻に懸念している。尖閣諸島は歴史的にも国際法上も、日本固有の領土だ」と強調した。斎木昭隆外務次官が直ちに中国の程永華駐日大使を呼び、厳重に抗議したのは当然である。

Three Russian Navy vessels also sailed in the contiguous zone around the same time as the Chinese warship. An MSDF destroyer shadowed the Russian vessels. It has been said the Chinese side may have taken advantage of this.
 中国軍艦艇と同時間帯にロシア軍の艦艇3隻も近くの接続水域を航行し、海自の護衛艦が追尾していた。中国側がこうした動きに乗じた可能性があるという。

Foreign naval vessels are permitted to sail in a contiguous zone under international law. Japan took necessary precautions against Russia, but the intentions behind having military vessels enter the contiguous zone need to be analyzed.
 国際法上、接続水域での外国艦艇の航行は認められている。ロシアには必要な注意喚起を行ったが、意図の分析が求められる。

The Japanese government has decided on a policy to order the Self-Defense Forces to engage in maritime security operations and dispatch MSDF vessels in the event of a Chinese naval vessel entering territorial waters around the Senkakus.
 日本政府は、尖閣沖の領海に中国軍艦艇が侵入した場合、自衛隊に海上警備行動を発令し、艦艇を派遣する方針を決めている。

Prepare for contingencies

In close cooperation with the United States and other countries concerned, Japan must take all necessary steps in its patrol and surveillance activities. It is also imperative to deal with so-called gray-zone contingencies, which stop short of a military attack, such as an armed fishing boat approaching the Senkakus.
 米国など関係国と緊密に連携して、警戒・監視に万全を期すべきだ。武装漁船の接近など「グレーゾーン事態」を含む不測の事態に備えておくことも肝要である。

China’s Defense Ministry defended its ship’s entry into the contiguous zone, insisting that “it is legal for its military vessels to sail in waters under its jurisdiction and other countries have no right to complain about it.” This is a totally unreasonable argument.
 中国国防省が「自国の管轄海域を航行するのは合法で、他国があれこれ言う権利はない」と強弁したのは、筋が通らない。

Two days ago, a Chinese fighter jet engaged in an “unsafe excessive rate of closure” on a U.S. reconnaissance plane on a routine patrol in international airspace over the East China Sea.
 2日前、中国軍戦闘機が、東シナ海の公海上を巡視活動中の米電子偵察機に異常接近した。

On such occasions as the recent Ise-Shima summit of the Group of Seven major countries and the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue in Beijing, Tokyo and Washington called for “freedom of navigation,” thereby ramping up pressure on China. China is strongly opposed to this and is believed to have issued “warnings” to the two countries through its provocative actions.
 先の主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)や北京での米中戦略・経済対話などで、日米は「航行の自由」を訴え、対中圧力を強めた。中国はこれに反発し、「警告」したつもりなのだろう。

In the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly election on June 5, political parties opposing the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Futenma Air Station from Ginowan to Henoko in Nago in the prefecture increased their seats. This undeniably provided China with an opportunity to take provocative action.
 5日の沖縄県議選で、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設反対派が議席を増やしたことが、中国につけいる隙を与えた面も否めない。

Behind the Xi Jinping administration’s dispatch of the naval ship into waters around the Senkakus lies the state’s intention to establish naval and air supremacy in the East China Sea with an eye to expanding its maritime activity to the western Pacific Ocean. Excessive provocations could lead to a physical confrontation, heightening the international community’s distrust of China.
 習近平政権が軍艦艇を投入した背景には、西太平洋進出を視野に東シナ海の制海・制空権を確保しようとの国家意思があるのではないか。度を越した挑発は衝突につながる危険があり、国際社会の不信を一段と高めるだけだ。

To prevent an accidental clash between Japan and China, the Xi administration must accelerate efforts to conclude an agreement with Japan on the establishment of a bilateral “maritime liaison mechanism.”
 日中間の偶発的な衝突を防ぐために、習政権は、「海上連絡メカニズム」創設について、日本との合意を急がねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 10, 2016)
--The Asahi Shimbun, June 9
EDITORIAL: Masuzoe must explain spending with own words, not legal babble
(社説)舛添都知事 自らの言葉なぜ語らぬ

Tokyo Governor Yoichi Masuzoe is grossly mistaken if he thinks he has offered convincing answers to questions about his qualifications to head the capital’s government and the administration itself. Serious doubts still remain following revelations about his spending of taxpayer money for personal use.
In recent sessions of the Tokyo metropolitan assembly, Masuzoe was bombarded with questions about his dubious expenditures on hotels, meals, books and artwork. (過剰英訳です)
 東京都知事としての資質への疑念や都政への不信感が、これで解消できたと舛添要一知事は思っているのだろうか。

Tokyo citizens wanted to hear Masuzoe’s own thoughts concerning his moral responsibility for using public money for personal purposes, not the opinions of the lawyers who have scrutinized his questionable expenditures and drawn up a report on their findings.
 都議会の代表質問と一般質問が終わった。都民が聞きたかったのは、さまざまな公私混同の道義的責任などを、調査報告書をまとめた弁護士ではなく、舛添氏自身はどう考えているのかという点だっただろう。「自分の言葉で語って」と都議たちは何度も促した。

Assembly members who questioned the governor repeatedly urged him to speak with his own words.
 しかし舛添氏は、判で押したような「反省」を繰り返した。

But Masuzoe only reiterated cookie-cutter comments about his “soul-searching” over the spending. He refused to offer the related details he must have discussed with the lawyers or specific measures to fix the problem.
弁護士らには語ったはずの詳細な事実や、具体的な改善策を尋ねられても答えを避けた。

Still, he dared to say, “I wish to regain public trust by fulfilling my responsibility to explain in this way.” This comment sounds like nothing but an expression of defiance.
 それなのに「このように説明責任を果たしていくことで信頼を回復したい」と言うのでは、開き直りにしか聞こえない。

Masuzoe liked to say the metropolitan assembly represents the capital’s public. But his remarks in the assembly sessions suggest his disrespect for the assembly.
 「都議会こそが都民の代表」と繰り返していたはずが、こんな答弁ぶりでは議会軽視の姿勢も問われるべきだろう。

He appears unable to even recognize what is the real issue.
 舛添氏は、何が問題なのかも認識していないのではないか。

If he really spent part of his political funds, including public money, for personal purchases, he should at least be accused of betraying the trust of taxpayers.
 公金を含む政治資金の一部を私生活に流用したとすれば、納税者に対する背信である。

He has worsened matters by failing to fulfill his responsibility to answer the questions raised, causing confusion and disruptions in the work of the metropolitan government.
その上に説明責任を果たさない混乱が都政の停滞を招いている。

After seeing how he has responded to the scandal, most citizens of the capital are naturally unwilling to support his desire to retain his post.
 これで知事続投の意欲を示されても都民は納得できまい。

The lawyers announced their report on his spending on June 6, the day before the metropolitan assembly started its session. The report said millions of yen in Masuzoe’s expenditures on hotel stays with his family, meals and artwork were “inappropriate.”
 代表質問の前日に公表された報告書は、家族同伴のホテル宿泊費や、飲食費・美術品代などの一部を「不適切」と認定した。その重みを舛添氏は深刻に受け止めねばならない。

Masuzoe needs to take this judgment seriously.

The report includes some telltale signs of his stance toward political funds. When he was asked about his purchase of a book on making soba (buckwheat noodles), for example, Masuzoe reportedly tried to justify the spending by saying, “I once discussed politics while making soba, and the book has been useful for my political activities.”
 報告書からは、政治資金をめぐる意識が透けて見える。例えば、そば打ちの本を買ったことについて「そばを打ちながら政治談義をしたこともあり、政治活動に役立っている」と述べたという。

As for his purchase of historical novels, he said he had bought it “for studying Edo Period customs,” according to the report.
時代小説の購入は「江戸時代の風俗研究のため」。

He made it sound like all aspects of his life were related to politics.
 生活のすべてが政治であるといわんばかりだ。

Masuzoe described the report as a “harsh” assessment of his expenditures. But most ordinary citizens don’t share his view.
舛添氏は報告書を「厳しい」指摘というが、ふつうの市民感覚から見れば、そうとは言えない。

The report didn’t question the appropriateness of his purchases of many calligraphy works, saying they also served both his hobby and his interests as a politician.
 多くの「書」の購入について報告書は「趣味と政治家としての実利・実益を兼ね備えている」ので問題なしとした。

As for a silk Chinese outfit he bought in Shanghai, Masuzoe reportedly claimed he could move his ink brush smoothly in calligraphy when he wears the robe. The lawyers accepted Masuzoe’s explanation as “specific and convincing.”
上海で買ったシルクの中国服は「書道の際に着ると筆をスムーズに滑らせることができる」という舛添氏の説明を、「具体的で説得力がある」と評した。

Does the governor intend to continue such expenditures now that they have judged to be “appropriate?”
 適切とされたこれらの支出を今後も続ける気なのか。

What does he think about assembly members’ call for him to make a “painful decision?” Masuzoe needs to offer honest and straightforward answers to these questions.
都議から求められた「身を切る決断」をどう考えるのか。舛添氏は正面から語らねばならない。

The metropolitan assembly, for its part, is responsible for making an exhaustive inquiry into the governor’s dubious expenditures.
 都議会には、審理を尽くす責任がある。

Members of the assembly’s general affairs committee should rigorously investigate the scandal during an intensive session on the topic expected to be held as early as next week.
来週にも見込まれる総務委員会での集中審議で、きちんと追及すべきだ。
The Yomiuri Shimbun
Washington must press Beijing to act responsibly in S. China Sea
米中戦略対話 南シナ海安定に責任を果たせ

China has been beefing up its efforts to build artificial islands in the South China Sea for use as military bases while also repeating self-serving actions and remarks over human rights and trade issues.
 南シナ海の軍事拠点化を加速させ、人権問題や貿易でも独善的な言動を繰り広げる。

To maintain peace in Asia and the stability of the global economy, it is crucial for the United States to keep pressing China to abide by international rules and fulfill its responsibilities as a major power.
 アジアの平和と世界経済の安定を保つには、そんな中国に、国際ルールを順守し、大国の責任を果たすよう米国が促し続けることが欠かせない。

In the eighth round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue in Beijing, cabinet-level officials discussed a wide range of issues over two days.
 第8回米中戦略・経済対話が北京で行われ、閣僚級が2日間、幅広い課題を巡って協議した。

Regarding the dispute over the South China Sea, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called for maintaining a maritime order based on international laws. “I reiterated America’s fundamental support for negotiations and a peaceful resolution, based on the rule of law, as well as ... our concern about any unilateral steps by any party,” he said.
 南シナ海問題について、ケリー米国務長官は「一方的な行動ではなく、法の支配や外交を通じて解決すべきだ」と述べ、国際法に基づく海洋秩序の維持を訴えた。

However, both sides remained far apart on this issue. “China has every right to uphold its territorial sovereignty and lawful and legitimate maritime entitlements,” State Councilor Yang Jiechi said. Chinese President Xi Jinping also emphasized that there are “differences that cannot be resolved for the time being” between the two countries.
 中国の楊潔●国務委員は、「国家の主権と領土を断固守る」と語った。習近平国家主席も「すぐに解決できない対立もある」と強調し、議論は平行線をたどった。(●は竹かんむりの下にがんだれと虎)

The Xi administration is believed to be considering a plan to reclaim land on Scarborough Shoal, which lies close to the Philippines, on top of artificial islands they have already built in the South China Sea. Beijing apparently aims to build a runway and radar installations to pave the way for establishing an air defense identification zone over the area.
 習政権は、既に造成した人工島に加え、フィリピンに近いスカボロー礁でも埋め立てを検討しているとみられる。滑走路やレーダー網を整備し、防空識別圏の設定につなげる思惑があるのだろう。

The Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration is expected to make a decision by the end of this month on a case the Philippines has brought over Beijing’s territorial claims in the South China Sea, which Manila calls a violation of international laws.
 フィリピンが中国の領有権主張を国際法違反と提訴したオランダ・ハーグの常設仲裁裁判所は、月内にも判断を下す見通しだ。

Yang, however, once again said China will ignore the decision. Does this mean that Beijing does not shy away from becoming isolated in the international community? A stance to turn from the rule of law will only give more credence to the idea that China is not like other nations.
 楊氏は、仲裁裁の結果を受け入れない考えを改めて示した。国際社会で孤立することも辞さないと言うのか。「法の支配」に背を向ける姿は、「中国異質論」に拍車をかけるだけである。

Staging cooperation

Kerry expressed his concerns over China’s human rights issues. In April, the Xi administration enacted a law to put foreign nongovernmental organizations providing services in the country under the supervision of security authorities. It cannot be overlooked that Beijing is oppressing human rights under the guise of “domestic affairs.”
 ケリー氏は中国の人権状況を問題視する意向を伝えた。習政権は4月に、国内で活動する外国の非政府組織(NGO)を公安当局の管理下に置く法律を制定している。中国が「国情」を盾に人権を抑圧する事態は看過できない。

One of the concerns in China’s economy is the delay in structural reforms, best exemplified by the overproduction of steel, among other products. U.S. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew requested that China reduce production in steel and aluminium, saying, “Excess capacity has a distorting and damaging effect on global markets.”
 経済分野で懸念されるのは、鉄鋼などの過剰生産に象徴される中国の構造改革の遅れだ。ルー米財務長官は「世界市場を歪ゆがめ、悪影響を及ぼす」と語り、鉄鋼やアルミニウムの減産を要請した。

The latest Group of Seven summit meeting held in the Ise-Shima area of Mie Prefecture also described the overcapacity of steel as a cause for concern in the global economy, as it triggers unfair discount sales. The Xi administration is being held responsible for nipping possible disorder in the bud by making sure it reorganizes state-owned enterprises, among other measures.
 不当廉売を招く鉄鋼の過剰生産は、先の主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)でも、世界経済の不安材料とされた。習政権には、国有企業の整理などを着実に進め、混乱の芽を摘む責務がある。

The latest U.S.-China dialogue was held as the last session under the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama. The U.S. side said the two countries were able to produce results as they deepened their cooperation on issues such as climate change and Iran’s nuclear development program through a series of discussions. The dialogue seemed to be effective to some degree in deterring unexpected collisions by facilitating exchanges among military officers.
 今回はオバマ政権下で最後の戦略対話となった。米側は、一連の対話を通じ、気候変動対策やイランの核問題などで協力が深まり、成果が出たと説明する。軍当局間の交流により、不測の衝突を防ぐ一定の効果はあっただろう。

China did not make any concessions on issues it regards as “core interests.” Wasn’t a show of cooperation put on rather than differences being resolved?
 中国は「核心的利益」と位置づける問題で一切譲歩しなかった。対立の解消より、協調を演出する側面が目立ったのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 8, 2016)
The Yomiuri Shimbun
ROK must expand people’s support to implement ‘comfort women’ deal
韓国慰安婦財団 合意履行へ国民の理解求めよ

It can be said that a first step has been taken for implementation of a deal reached by the Japanese and South Korean governments in late December on the so-called comfort women issue. We want to see how the administration of President Park Geun-hye will follow through.
 慰安婦問題を巡る昨年末の日韓合意の履行に向けて、一歩前進したと言えよう。朴槿恵政権の取り組みを見守りたい。

A preparatory committee has been established in South Korea to set up a foundation to support former comfort women based on the bilateral accord.
 元慰安婦を合意に基づいて支援する財団の設立準備委員会が韓国で発足した。

The Japanese government will provide ¥1 billion for the foundation to be established by the South Korean government. The purpose of the foundation is said to be “to restore the honor and dignity of former comfort women and heal their emotional wounds.” The foundation will be required to embody the aims of the bilateral deal.
 韓国政府が設立する財団に、日本政府が10億円を拠出する。「元慰安婦の名誉と尊厳の回復、心の傷の癒やし」が事業目的とされる。その合意の趣旨を体現した財団となることが求められる。

Chaired by Kim Tae Hyeon, an honorary professor at Sungshin Women’s University and an expert on women’s issues, the committee consists of 11 members, including former Foreign Minister Yu Myung Hwan and a scholar on Japanese affairs. The panel will compile assistance programs for the former comfort women, and the foundation is scheduled to be set up as early as this month.
 準備委は、女性問題専門家の金兌玄・誠信女子大名誉教授が委員長を務め、柳明桓元外相、日本研究者ら計11人で構成される。元慰安婦支援の計画をまとめ、今月中にも財団が設立される運びだ。

During a recent news conference, Kim stressed a policy of respecting the intentions of former comfort women in carrying out assistance programs, saying, “We’d like to become sympathetic from our hearts to the pains of the victims [former comfort women] and meet their requests.”
 金委員長は記者会見で、「被害者(元慰安婦)の痛みに心から共感し、応えたい」と述べた。元慰安婦の意向を尊重して活動を進める方針を強調している。

It took more than five months before the preparatory committee was established. Behind the delay could be the Park administration’s wish to avoid having the comfort women issue become a point of contention in the general election that was held in April and evade the possibility of a barrage of criticism by opposition parties.
 準備委発足までに5か月以上かかった。4月の総選挙で慰安婦問題が争点となり、野党から攻撃されるのを避けたいとの判断が、朴政権にあったためだろう。

Given the stunning election defeat of her ruling party, the pressure on her administration’s governance has been mounting.
 総選挙で与党が大敗したことから、朴大統領の政権運営への圧力が高まっている。

No more time for delay

The Minjoo Party of Korea, a leftist opposition group that is now the biggest force in the National Assembly, has denounced the Japan-South Korea deal on the comfort women issue as making no mention of Japan’s legal responsibility and has called for holding negotiations again on the matter. A South Korean group assisting the former comfort women has been strongly opposing the inauguration of the preparatory committee.
 第1党となった左派野党「共に民主党」は日韓合意について、日本の法的責任の認定がない点などを批判し、再交渉を主張する。元慰安婦の支援団体も、準備委発足に強く反発している。

Of concern is that the South Korean people’s understanding of the bilateral accord on the comfort women issue is not sufficient. According to a joint public opinion survey conducted by The Yomiuri Shimbun and The Hankook Ilbo, 73 percent of South Korean respondents did not support the comfort women deal.
 気がかりなのは、国民の理解が十分に得られていない状況だ。読売新聞と韓国日報の共同世論調査では、合意を「評価しない」とする人が韓国で73%に上った。

The deal was worked out as a result of mutual concessions by Tokyo and Seoul. True, it triggered a chance for the two countries to restore strained bilateral relations. The Park administration has reportedly received an increasing amount of affirmative responses to the deal in interviews with the former comfort women.
 合意は日韓双方が歩み寄った成果であり、停滞していた日韓関係を改善する契機となったのは間違いない。朴政権が元慰安婦との面談を進める中で、合意に肯定的な反応が増えているという。

Forty-six former comfort women remained alive when the deal was hammered out last December. But four of them have since died. Delay in assistance programs can no longer be allowed.
 存命している元慰安婦は合意時に46人だったが、その後、4人が亡くなった。支援事業のこれ以上の遅滞は許されまい。

It is essential for the Park administration to tenaciously seek to obtain the people’s understanding of its accord with Tokyo on the comfort women issue and strive to enable the foundation to function smoothly.
 朴政権は合意の意義について、粘り強く国民に理解を求め、財団が円滑に活動できるよう努めることが欠かせない。

As for a Japanese request for the removal of a statue of a girl installed in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul, the South Korean government has pledged “to work toward resolving the matter appropriately.”
 日本側が撤去を求めるソウルの日本大使館前の少女像について、韓国側は「適切に解決されるよう努力する」と約束している。

It should not be forgotten that the matter is gravely related to securing the peace and safety as well as the dignity of the embassy. South Korean organizations, including one that installed the statue, object to its removal, but it is also important for the South Korean government to induce them to remove the statue in line with progress in implementation of what has been agreed upon in the deal.
 大使館の安寧や威厳の維持に関わる重大な問題であるのを忘れてはならない。少女像を設置した団体などは撤去に反対するが、朴政権は合意履行の進展に伴い、撤去へ誘導していくことも大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 7, 2016)
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■近況

2009年の9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、右手が少し不自由になりました。
MRAで脳梗塞の部位を特定でき、素早い処置をとれたので大事に至りませんでした。
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(2011/01/01更新)

■自己紹介・リンク

[ はじめに ]
タイのスラチャイです。
英語学習に王道はありません。
毎日毎日の地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
スラチャイはNHKのラジオ英語会話で現在の英語力を身につけました。
一日僅か15分の学習でも数年間継続すれば相当な学習効果が期待できます。

[ 名前 ]
松井 清 (スラチャイ)

[ 略歴 ]
・福岡県出身
・国立高知大学卒業
・準大手建設会社に就職
・50歳で会社を早期退職
・99/10 タイ全土を旅行
・00/10 タイに移住
・03/07 カイちゃん誕生
・07/06 シーファーちゃん誕生
・現在タイ国コンケン在住

[ 座右の銘 ]
Slow and steady wins the race.
遅くとも着実な者が勝利する
(NHK基礎英語芹沢栄先生)

[ 学習の手引き ]
・音読して耳から英語を吸収
・Think in English.
・ネイティブ発音付辞書活用
・英英辞典を活用(英和も)
・翻訳和文で専門用語確認

[ English Newspapers ]
Yomiuri
Mainichi
Asahi
Japan Times
Washington Post
Newyork Times
Bangkok Post
The Nations
Phuket Gazette

[ 英字新聞の英和対訳学習 ]
英字新聞(読売)
英字新聞(毎日)
英字新聞(朝日)
英字新聞(朝日2) 

[ スラチャイ編集の辞書 ]
タイ日辞書(改訂版)
日タイ辞書(改訂版)
ラオ日辞書
日ラオ辞書

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基礎タイ語一覧(タイ文字、音声付き)
サイト外HPリンク一覧:
01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

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