--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 20
EDITORIAL: Cooperation needed to prevent chaos in Pyongyang

North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has died.

Under Kim's rule, North Korea developed nuclear weapons, ignoring international rules. Its economy is in tatters, with people suffering from acute food shortages. The country also abducted many Japanese citizens and still repeatedly violates human rights. Its government strictly controls the information made available to the public.

Kim was a dictator who held absolute power in this outlandish and outrageous country.

It is still unclear how the transition of power will play out in the secluded nation. But there is no doubt that Kim's death offers an opportunity for North Korea to change itself dramatically. At the same time, however, it creates a precarious situation that could throw the nation into serious turmoil.

There have been no signs of unsettling developments in the country, at least so far.

But South Korea and the United States have put their armed forces on emergency alert. Japan and other countries concerned should work in close cooperation in dealing with any situation that may arise following the dictator's death.

It seems that Kim died suddenly. According to local media, he suffered a heart attack on a special train as he was traveling to the country during an "on-site guidance" tour, a practice that was introduced by his father, Kim Il Sung, who founded the country after the end of World War II.

Three generations of hereditary rule

Kim was long one of the world's most enigmatic leaders.

He was chosen as the successor to his father in a secret meeting of the Korean Worker's Party in 1974 and appeared in public for the first time in the party convention in 1980.

Kim solidified his grip on power by taking advantage of his father's powerful backing and established a dictatorship based on a personality cult like that of a feudal dynasty.

Kim drastically changed his image as a leader who remains behind the scenes through a series of high-profile diplomatic actions he started taking in 2000.

As a starter, he met with then South Korean President Kim Dae-jung in the first summit between the leaders of the two Koreas. His spirited exchanges were televised and immediately earned the North Korean leader a reputation as a person well informed about international affairs. Kim Jong Il also met with the leaders of both China and Russia, as well as a U.S. Secretary of State. He held talks with then Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi twice.

Kim's diplomacy was described as "brinkmanship diplomacy" or "saber-rattling diplomacy" because he used his nuclear and missile programs as leverage to extract concessions from other countries.

Kim also started diplomatic efforts to build a formal relationship with the United States and revive his country's dilapidated economy as a way to maintain his autocratic regime. But he died before achieving the goals.

His third son, Kim Jong Un, has been groomed as his anointed successor.

The younger Kim may not assume the official leadership posts held by his father until after the period of national mourning expires.

But the dictator's son is likely to attain supreme power as a third-generation hereditary ruler--a striking anomaly in a country that claims to stand for socialist principles.

The process of the transition of power to Kim Jong Un, who has yet to turn 30, began only three years ago when his father suffered a stroke.

In stark contrast, Kim Jong Il had some 20 years to solidify his position as the successor to his father.

It is probably reasonable to assume that the nation will be under de facto collective leadership for the time being. A group of close aides will support the younger Kim's rule behind the scenes while ensuring that the new leader will stand at center stage.

We cannot, of course, tolerate North Korea's nuclear tests and test-firing of ballistic missiles. We also cannot overlook Pyongyang's attempt to intimidate the international community by suddenly launching an artillery attack on a neighboring country. We are opposed to the country's system of keeping a close watch on citizens and sending anyone it doesn't like to dreadful concentration camps.

Road map to get rid of North Korea's nukes

The demise of the dictator should not be allowed to unsettle North Korea and destabilize surrounding areas.

Is it possible that Kim's death will trigger a fierce power struggle within the military or among the party elite during the period of transition?

It has long been assumed that North Koreans, despite their deep anger and resentment over their destitution and the regime's tight control on their lives, are unable to organize themselves because of close mutual surveillance. But is it possible now that people in the country will put up organized resistance against the regime and flee the country as refugees in droves?

Such confusion must be averted at any cost.

The big question now is whether North Korea will make serious efforts to improve its relations with neighboring countries in order to attain economic and social stability at home.

To tackle the formidable challenges it is facing, North Korea needs to shift its foreign policy toward cooperation with other countries and change itself into a country that respects international rules and follows common sense.

The international community has an important role to play in leading Pyongyang in the right direction. In dealing with this erratic nation, other countries should put the priority on ensuring that the nuclear materials produced and stockpiled by the regime will be strictly controlled to prevent their proliferation.

First of all, the six-party talks that have mapped out a plan for North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambitions should be put back on track. Then, concrete steps should be taken according to the plan.

The issue of North Korea's development of nuclear weapons has gained more urgency as the country has admitted to enriching uranium.

Kim Jong Il died just when the United States and North Korea were beginning to take the first step toward breaking the current impasse. But this window of opportunity should be taken to resume talks over Pyongyang's nuclear ambition.

Solving the abduction issue

Cooperation among the countries concerned is crucial for preventing confusion in North Korea.

China is North Korea's largest ally, while the United States holds the key to the country's national security.

Russia is raising its economic profile in the Far East, while South Korea, which is pursuing a vision of future unification of the Korean Peninsula, is directly affected by what is happening in the North. All the countries concerned should work together in dealing with North Korea through a combination of pressure and dialogue.

Japan, also a victim of Pyongyang's abduction of foreign nationals, has a direct interest in peace and stability in the region.

North Korea has made no serious effort to honor its promise three years ago to carry out a fresh investigation on the fate of Japanese citizens it abducted decades ago. There has been no progress either in the talks between Tokyo and Pyongyang toward establishing a formal diplomatic relationship.

Japan should develop a new strategy to find a way to make real progress toward a solution of the abduction issue.

Japan needs to prepare itself to make flexible and bold responses to any significant changes that might happen in North Korea.
The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jul. 6, 2011)
Attention, Diet members: Stop wasting time
国会正常化へ 無策のまま時間を浪費するな(7月5日付・読売社説)

The stalled Diet session will finally resume deliberations on Wednesday.

The ruling Democratic Party of Japan and the two major opposition parties--the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito--have agreed to get the Diet back to normal.

The Diet, since it decided on June 22 to extend its current session by 70 days, has not held any deliberations.

So what is the extension for?

The government and the ruling parties should seriously reflect on that.

Prime Minister Naoto Kan is primarily responsible for the stalled Diet.

Kan reneged on the idea--agreed on earlier by the secretaries general of the DPJ, the LDP and Komeito--of extending the Diet session by just 50 days to pass or vote on three key bills, including the second supplementary budget for fiscal 2011.

Kan did not call on the opposition camp to resume the Diet deliberation strongly enough.
This is apparently due to his guilty feelings over having appointed an LDP member in the House of Councillors as parliamentary secretary for internal affairs and communications, as if he were scheming to win over members of the opposition party one at a time.

Kan also hinted at the possibility of his dissolving the House of Representatives for a snap election by saying that "energy policy will be the biggest point of contention in the next national election."


Politics going nowhere

This self-righteous political style has created a political vacuum and amplified the people's distrust of politics.

According to a recent public opinion poll taken by The Yomiuri Shimbun, 66 percent of pollees sense "stagnation in politics."

In regards to when they hope to see Kan step down, a combined total of 72 percent said either "as soon as possible," or "by the end of August."

Ryu Matsumoto, newly appointed by Kan as reconstruction minister, has also caused a stir.

During a weekend visit to disaster-hit areas, Matsumoto repeatedly made high-handed remarks. After Matsumoto waited for a prefectural governor to appear in a reception room, he told the governor, "When a guest comes, you have to be present."

If he thinks he is a "guest," he is wrong in his judgment.

No matter how feckless it is, the administration should not waste any more time doing nothing.

It is vitally important for the government and the ruling parties to seek cooperation of the opposition parties on high-priority policies and swiftly implement them.

DPJ Secretary General Katsuya Okada once again called on the LDP and Komeito to cooperate in the early enactment of a bill for a temporary law to allow the issuance of deficit-covering special public bonds, which Kan cited as one of the conditions for him to resign.


Listen to opposition

Both the LDP and Komeito call for a drastic review of the child-rearing allowances and the settlement of the issue of how to secure state funds for basic pension benefits this fiscal year, as part of those funds have been diverted for reconstruction purposes in the first extra budget for fiscal 2011.

What the opposition parties are asserting is quite reasonable in the sense of holding down the deficit-covering special public bonds as much as possible.

To secure funds for reconstruction, the DPJ must retract nonessential policies contained in its manifesto.

A matter of particular urgency is relief for victims of the accidents at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, rather than "a bill concerning special measures on renewable energy sources," whose enactment Kan insists on.  喫緊の課題は、首相が執着している「再生可能エネルギー特別措置法案」より、原発事故の被災者救援だ。

The legislators need to start deliberating a bill concerning a nuclear damage compensation support organization, to be created to pay compensation to victims.

The LDP wants to modify the bill to clarify the responsibility of the central government, rather than merely holding Tokyo Electric Power Co., the operator of the crippled plant, responsible for the damages.

Both ruling and opposition parties need to reach an agreement and try to get the bill passed into law.

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 5, 2011)
(2011年7月5日01時19分 読売新聞)

(Mainichi Japan) August 30, 2009
Opposition Democratic Party of Japan set to win election in landslide
衆院選:民主単独で300議席超へ 鳩山政権誕生が確実に

The largest opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) is set to score a landslide victory in Sunday's general election, likely capturing more than 300 of the 480 seats in the House of Representatives, according to Mainichi Shimbun exit polls.

The DPJ is certain to take over the reins of government, putting an end to the 10-year-old coalition government comprised of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and Komeito (NKP).

DPJ leader Yukio Hatoyama will be elected prime minister at a special Diet session that must be called within 30 days after the polling day under the Constitution, and form a Cabinet.

The LDP is expected to suffer a humiliating defeat, possibly falling short of 100 seats.

The focal point of Sunday's general election has been whether the DPJ will take over the reins of government or the LDP-NKP coalition will stay in power.

Vote counting began immediately after almost all of about 51,000 polling stations across the country closed at 8 p.m.

As of 10:40 p.m., the DPJ had won 243 seats, the LDP 62, NKP 11, the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) five, the Social Democratic Party (SDP) two, the People's New Party (PNP) two, the Your Party (YP) three and the New Party Nippon (NPN) one, while the Japan Renaissance Party (JRP) had won no seats. Four independents have also been elected to the chamber.

All winners in the nation's 300 single-seat constituencies (SSC) will be announced by about 1 a.m. on Monday and all those elected in the proportional representation blocs (PRB) will be determined by around 3 a.m.

The voter turnout was 53 percent as of 7:30 p.m., down 2.65 points from the previous election in 2005. However, as the number of those who cast absentee ballots was more than 50 percent more than the previous election, final voter turnout is expected to be above that in the previous election, which stood at 67.51 percent.

A confidence vote among the public for nine Supreme Court justices, who were appointed after the previous Lower House election, was also held simultaneously with the general election.





毎日新聞 2009年8月30日 21時02分(最終更新 8月30日 22時08分)
毎日新聞 (2009/03/12)


Japanese actor, comedian Kampei Hazama celebrates his yacht's arrival in Long Beach, California, on Tuesday, as part of his around-the-world trip. Kampei is crossing the ocean as part of his 37,000-kilometer round-the-world journey that began in December in Osaka. Kampei is crossing the globe as the bid ambassador for Tokyo's 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

(日本語翻訳 by srachai )




srachai from khonkaen, thiland

(Mainichi Japan) October 1, 2008
Financial collapse: Chain of crises that started in the U.S. (Part 1)
金融崩壊:米発・危機の連鎖/上 「悪夢」世界を巡る

 ◇一時取引停止市場も 米大統領声明、新提案なく

"I'm disappointed by the outcome, but I assure our citizens and citizens around the world that this is not the end of the legislative process," President George W. Bush stated on Tuesday. The vote the day before by the United States Congress to deny the financial rescue plan to put an end to the financial crisis has resulted in a record New York stock market plunge. The president made the statement requesting Congress to work on the legislation without delay.

He stressed that "the consequences will worsen each day if we do not act. If our nation continues on this course, the economic damage will be painful and lasting." He also pleaded to Congress in a strong voice, "and for the financial security of every American, Congress must act."

However, the less-than-four-minute statement had no new approach, and the market reaction was quite chilly. "At least the atmosphere of crisis got through," said an American economist. Congress has no prospects to reassume talks. Both presidential nominees Democrat Senator Barack Obama and Republican Senator John McCain urged Congress to reassume discussion on the bill, but lacked dynamics. The general view is uncertainty about the future has not been dissolved, and the chain of financial crises seems to be inexhaustible.

The New York stock market was hit with a shock wave on Monday afternoon. News that Congress voted down the legislation made the rounds, and it took less than 10 minutes to plunge the average 30 Dow industrial stocks down some 400 dollars. "Is Washington trying to destroy the market?" the market shrieked. The public thought why should it save well-paid people's financial institutions with their tax money? The taxpayer's discontent was reflected through the rejection by Congress.

With the Nov. 4 presidential and congressional elections drawing near, world economics were not a part of most lawmakers' vocabulary. Congressman Dean Heller of Nevada huffed, "I cannot with good conscience put Nevada's taxpayers on the line for the foolish excesses of Wall Street."

The plunge in the New York stock market rippled around the world. Brazil's Sao Paulo market had to be temporarily closed down because of the unforeseen substantial drop. President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva did not hide his anger, "It's not fair for healthy emergent nations and poor countries to pay for the casino built by the American economy." The Tokyo market also suffered a knock down on Tuesday. All Asian markets plunged too, except for the Shanghai market that was closed that day. The Russian market also went into a free fall, and had to be suspended.

In Europe, the London market bounced back, but British Prime Minister Gordon Brown maintained his vigilance and pledged that he would take all necessary steps to guarantee the stability of the British banking system. Although the Frankfurt market also made a kickback, the inferno of the European financial market is far from cooled down.

Ireland announced on Tuesday a sweeping guarantee of all deposits in the country's banks in a bid to stabilize the Irish financial sector.

毎日新聞 2008年10月1日 東京朝刊
(Mainichi Japan) October 1, 2008
Fifteen killed, 10 injured in fire at Osaka video shop
個室ビデオ店火災:15人死亡 放火で男客に逮捕状 大阪

OSAKA -- Fifteen people were killed and 10 others injured in a fire at a video shop here in the early hours of Wednesday, police said.

The fire broke out at Video DVD Cat's, on the first floor of a seven-story building in Naniwa-ku, Osaka, and burned 37 square meters of the establishment, according to investigators.

Fifteen men, believed to be customers, were found dead in individual video rooms. Ten other men and women were injured, some seriously.

The shop manager was quoted as telling police that the fire started in one of its 32 individual rooms, each equipped with a bed and a television set. At the time, there were 26 customers and three employees on the premises. Most of the customers were apparently asleep.

"Shortly after 2:30 a.m., I smelled something burning, and opened the door to find the corridor filled with smoke. It was dark, but I managed to get out of the shop after bumping into a few people," said one customer. "I was just about to go to bed. It's horrifying to imagine that I would have died if I had fallen asleep."

Local police are trying to identify the victims, and are investigating the cause of the blaze.


個室ビデオ店火災:15人死亡 放火で男客に逮捕状 大阪










毎日新聞 2008年10月1日 5時09分(最終更新 10月1日 14時06分)
(Mainichi Japan) September 29, 2008
Prime Minister Aso needs to consider the weight of his words
社説:麻生外交 発言の重みを自覚すべきだ

Prime Minister Taro Aso delivered a speech to the United Nations General Assembly on Thursday. He is the first Japanese prime minister to address that body in three years.

There is a reason that Prime Minister Aso chose the U.N. Headquarters as the venue for his first official act as prime minster. The leaders of U.N. member countries deliver speeches there annually around this time of year, but during the past two years, Japan's two previous prime ministers, Shinzo Abe and Yasuo Fukuda, stayed away because the timing conflicted with the launch of their own administrations.

If Japan's prime minister had missed this opportunity to address the U.N. for three years in a row, even though Japan attaches great importance to that organization, it would have had repercussions for Japan's international stature. This thought probably occurred to Prime Minister Aso, so although it is unusual for a prime minister to address the U.N. before delivering his own policy speech to the Diet, his decision to give priority to the U.N. by working this trip into his schedule was a good one.

The prime minister gave his speech an Aso color by stating that Japan is committed to growing its own economy in order to contribute to the stability of the global economy.

He explained that Japan has carried out refueling operations in the Indian Ocean in cooperation with the campaign against terrorism and as part of the effort to assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan, and said that Japan will "continue to proactively participate in unison with the international community in the fight against terrorism."

His speech could be interpreted as signaling his resolve to continue the refueling operations. Given that the House of Representatives is expected to be dissolved soon, and that the outcome of the general election is uncertain, there is a possibility that the refueling operations may not be sustained. But even if that were to be the case, the prime minister has made an international pledge to "proactively participate" in the war against terrorism. Japan will have to pursue a policy that takes sufficient account of the importance of this pledge.

One thing should be said with regard to the weight that the prime minister's words carry. After his speech, Prime Minister Aso stated, in reference to the Constitution's prohibition against the exercise of the right of collective defense, that it "basically should be changed." He might have thought that he was simply voicing his personal views in response to a question from the press, but this is probably not a topic that should be handled so casually.

A committee of wisemen inaugurated by former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had issued a report on this topic that called for a change in the interpretation of the Constitution, but former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda shelved the report. And even Defense Minister Yasukazu Hamada has stated politicians "need to settle into their seats to talk over the issue." An issue that affects the foundation of Japan's national security policy needs to be debated in a calm environment.

In regard to Japan's diplomacy with its neighbors, Aso said that Japan would make an effort to strengthen its relations with its important partners China and South Korea. We hope that he treats Japan's relations with China and South Korea, which have gotten on track again, with great care and revives the summit diplomacy that involves alternating visits by the leaders of these countries.

Beijing in particular is alarmed by the "arc of freedom and prosperity" policy that Aso set forth while foreign minister, which it sees as a policy intended to contain China. Aso did not touch on this policy in his speech, but he asserted his belief in pursuing a "values diplomacy" that places a priority on building solidarity with countries that share the same basic values. He will need to provide a careful explanation of this point in order to avoid leaving the international community with a mistaken impression.

毎日新聞 2008年9月27日 0時28分
(Mainichi Japan) September 27, 2008
Japan, U.S. must adopt impeccable safety measures for nuclear carrier deployment
社説:原子力空母配備 「安全」に日米政府は万全策を

The U.S. nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George Washington has arrived at its new home port of Yokosuka in Kanagawa Prefecture, the first U.S. nuclear carrier to be deployed to a home port outside the U.S.

The Navy published a 200-page comic book on the George Washington in April this year, aimed at assuaging the concerns of local residents. The comic book provides descriptions of the interior of the George Washington, its training regimen, and daily life on the aircraft carrier as it cruises from the U.S. to Yokosuka, and its hero is a Japanese-American sailor.

In one scene, the hero helps to extinguish a fire on board. The ship did in fact experience a fire off the coast of South America as it was bound for Japan -- but while the comic-book version of the fire had no effect on the vessel's operations, the real George Washington suffered 37 injuries to crew and was forced to undergo repairs, delaying its arrival at Yokosuka for over a month. The cause of the comic-book fire was an overheating washer-dryer, but the cause of the actual fire was more insidious -- a discarded cigarette.

Since small problems and accidents on nuclear-powered vessels can potentially escalate into major crises involving local residents, it's only natural that the fire should have prompted the Japanese and U.S. governments to adopt a framework for preventing and responding to accidents.

In laying the groundwork for the deployment of the George Washington, the U.S. presented a fact sheet to the Japanese government in 2006 regarding the safety of nuclear-powered vessels. This document states repeatedly that accident scenarios including leaks of radioactive material are improbable, and adheres to the position that accidents will not happen. It also stresses that past port calls in Japan have never triggered spikes in radiation levels in the environment.

But such statements are viewed with a strong dose of skepticism. In May 1968, when the nuclear submarine USS Swordfish called at the port of Sasebo in Nagasaki, a Japanese radiation monitoring boat detected radiation near the submarine 10 to 20 times above normal levels; and after the nuclear submarine USS Honolulu departed from Yokosuka Naval Base in September 2006, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 were detected in the seas nearby.

In both cases, the U.S. denied that the radiation had any connection to the nuclear submarines, and efforts to get at the truth have been sidetracked. Last month, it was learned that the nuclear submarine USS Houston had also leaked radioactive coolant water when it was docked off White Beach in Okinawa, and when it visited Sasebo Port between June 2006 and July 2008.

The Japanese response has been muffled by the U.S. military's wall of secrecy. When a nuclear submarine visited Japan for the first time in 1964, the U.S. government issued a statement declaring that it "would not provide technological information," and not allow "boarding of the submarine for the purpose of acquiring technological information." Japan's Foreign Ministry had no alternative but to rely on U.S. statements when providing information on leaks from the Houston.

But in the event of an accident, or if there is suspicion that an accident has occurred, it would be inadequate to simply rely on notices from the U.S. military. The Japanese government should discuss sufficient responses with the U.S. government including boarding of the vessels. Otherwise, the concerns of local residents cannot be sufficiently addressed.

毎日新聞 2008年9月26日 0時06分



中山国交相―首相の門出にこの放言 晴れの大臣就任で、つい口が滑らかになりすぎたのか。中山成彬国土交通相が、就任2日目の報道機関のインタビューで驚くべき発言を連発した。















(Mainichi Japan) September 28, 2008

Nakayama's foot-in-mouth antics already casting doubt on Aso's Cabinet
Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Minister Nariaki Nakayama remarked that some residents near Narita Airport refused to sell their land for the airport construction because they thought there would be more gain by holding out. He later retracted and apologized for his remarks, but it's not enough to settle the controversy he sparked.

His misconceptions and lack of proper understanding of the role of the ministry he supervises has raised questions as to whether he is qualified to serve as a Cabinet minister, and over the insight of Prime Minister Taro Aso, who appointed him.

Regarding Narita Airport, Nakayama remarked: "When I came home in 1978, I landed at the airport. Since then, there had been only one lane (runway) for many years, and it's a pity for Japan. Many held out, expecting more gain. I think it's one of the problems of post-war education. They lack public-mindedness. They have no desire to make a certain self-sacrifice for the benefit of the public, and think only of their own benefit, making it hard to expand the airport. It's a real shame."

Local residents opposing the Narita Airport construction project, which began in 1960s, were in bitter conflict with the national government from the start. Through negotiations with local residents at round-table talks and other places, the government admitted in 1995 that it was at fault for attempting to force the project through, and offered an apology.

In the apology, the government admitted its responsibility for the problem, and local residents have no reason to be criticized for holding out for more.

He failed to probe relations between the lack of public-mindedness and problems involving post-war education, and the dispute over the airport, and apparently made the remarks based on his groundless impressions -- and which could damage the mutual trust that local residents and the ministry have nurtured for many years through their efforts.

Nakayama then trained his sights on the Japan Teachers Union (JTU), and said: "The children of JTU members can become teachers even if their grades (in recruitment exams) are poor. Therefore, academic ability in Oita Prefecture is low," in an apparent reference to a bribery scandal involving recruitment of public school teachers in the prefecture.

"I proposed a nationwide academic aptitude test because I thought academic levels in areas where the JTU hold sway are low. Now I know it's true, so there's no longer any point in conducting such tests," he continued.

Nakayama proposed the test during his tenure as education, culture, sports, science and technology minister in the Cabinet of Junichiro Koizumi. Such an examination should be aimed at improving the academic levels of schoolchildren as a whole. However, he wanted to use it to prove a correlation between the JTU and low academic levels; which he failed to do. Claiming that "there is no longer any point in conducting such tests" -- as the minister who introduced the scheme, costing the government billions of yen a year -- is incredibly imprudent and irresponsible.

Regarding tourism policy, his remark that Japan is an ethnically homogeneous country has also been criticized for being a misconception.

This is not the first time that Nakayama's remarks have stirred controversy. One cannot help but wonder whether, Prime Minister Aso thought carefully about the selection of his Cabinet members and whether he really placed the right people in the right posts, as he said when he announced his Cabinet lineup.

This latest string of gaffes has raised doubts among a disappointed public. The government is faced with many outstanding issues, and Cabinet members are required to do their best to fulfill their duties, regardless of whether a general election will be called in the near future.

With the revolving-door nature of the top ministry posts in recent years, the Cabinet's trustworthiness as the top body of the executive branch of the government has been called into question.

The prime minister should instruct Cabinet ministers to properly understand policy issues they are supposed to tackle, and take a resolute action against any problem like the recent gaffe.
HOMENext ≫
civil engineer




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04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
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08 うまく言えないとき
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18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

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