(Mainichi Japan) September 25, 2008
Which politician will be the next cartoon hero?

Former Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida was looking for the house of an acquaintance while visiting Kamakura when a child playing baseball on a vacant lot saw him, and shouted, "The prime minister's here!"

One of his playmates, not taking him seriously, shouted back, "Why would the prime minister come here?" But the child who had seen Yoshida said, "But he looks just like the cartoon character." Yoshida himself was fond of retelling this story.

Indeed, Yoshida was caricatured in countless cartoons, and when he retired, one cartoonist came out with a cartoon in which cartoonists express their gratitude to the prime minister.

His grandson, Liberal Democratic Party President and Prime Minister Taro Aso, who is himself a cartoon fan, has finally acquired the throne that allows him to become the hero of a political cartoon. In a crowded field of five, Aso won two-thirds of the votes cast in the LDP presidential election, and cruised to a landslide victory.

Aso takes the helm of a party that has been peering over the precipice because its two previous leaders abandoned the reins of government. But the new prime minister's plans for opposing Democratic Party of Japan leader Ichiro Ozawa, who on the previous day had unveiled his own platform, are falling into place. Without a doubt, the LDP is reading from a playbook that calls for the selection of a new party president to jumpstart the party's sagging approval ratings, and the pumping up of the new leader's popularity as he heads into the general election.

But in the interim, the U.S. financial crisis and the tainted rice scandal have snowballed. Holding the party presidential election in the midst of these events left people with the impression that Japanese politics was incapable of mustering a response.

Shigeru Yoshida hated election campaigns. When his campaign strategists urged him to deliver speeches on the street, he refused, saying, "How can I speak on affairs of state where there is constant horse and car traffic!" But today, the LDP's popularity depends on the constant traffic of new party presidents. It just so happens that Ozawa's father, Saeki Ozawa, a masterful politician, was a close associate of Yoshida's. So of these two party leaders with a connection to Yoshida, who will survive to become the hero of a political cartoon? ("Yoroku," a front page column in the Mainichi Shimbun)
(Mainichi Japan) September 25, 2008
Poor political reportage promotes poor politics and politicians

Taro Aso, who was elected prime minister on Wednesday, shares his deep feelings with a close friend: "I don't think ordinary people understand the anguish of extremely rich people."

Even though Aso occasionally assumes a persona where he "pretends" to be a bad guy, it appears that this is actually his true nature.

The way he considers himself to be someone born to a special fate, and his confidence that he has experienced hardships that nobody else knows reveal a deep psychological condition.
How he will control the government appears likely to depend on this warped self-confidence.

I talk about such a thing because I wondered why Yasuo Fukuda, who resigned as prime minister on Wednesday, had decided to dump his government in an irresponsible manner and later acted selfishly. It all leads to the conclusion that he was not qualified to be prime minister. Many political reporters realized this fact, but did they clearly report it?

After Fukuda announced his decision to resign, the Mainichi Shimbun reported that as early as April he was tired of being prime minister. Nevertheless, the Mainichi Shimbun at the same time carried other articles saying that the prime minister was enthusiastic about his work.
Even though Fukuda displayed a mixture of aggressive and feeble attitudes, I cannot help but admit that these reports were incorrect. This is because the reporters failed to get to the bottom of Fukuda's real intentions and simply believed what his aides said.

Since Junichiro Koizumi was in office, brief interviews with the prime ministers at their office, which were limited to twice a day, had continued for seven years. This set a bad precedent for political reporters who have now come to believe that such brief interviews are enough to write articles.
Reporters were criticized for failing to ask tough questions during the news conference at which Fukuda announced his decision to resign because they were asking questions as if the news conference was just another one of the brief interviews at the prime minister's office.
People often talk about the political crisis, but it's largely because of the crisis of political news coverage. (By Tomonaga Ito, Political News Writer, Mainichi Shimbun)

毎日新聞 2008年9月24日 東京朝刊
(Mainichi Japan) September 24, 2008
Environmental challenges ahead for Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine world heritage site

Shimane -- In July 2007, Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine in Oda, Shimane Prefecture, became the first Japanese industrial site to be registered as a world heritage site. It gained high appraisal during the World Heritage Committee investigation for its "coexistence with nature" and "harmony with the environment."
However, environmental problems subsequently arose due to an increase in the number of tourists to the area. In response, local residents have made the bold decision to abolish a local bus service, which has been a precious means of transportation for them.
From this autumn, the people of Oda will make a fresh start with an even greater respect for the environment.

Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine is valued for three main features: The remains of the silver mine, the town itself, and the routes to the port. The core zone of the heritage area covers 442 hectares, encompassing the towns of Omori, Nima, and Yunotsu. The most popular site is Omori, where people can see the shaft of the silver mine and areas of the residential town that remain from the Edo period. Most tours planned by travel agencies focus on this town. An amazing 714,000 tourists visited the site in 2007 when it was registered as a world heritage site, almost double the number of the previous year. This year, the number of visitors reached 560,000 by the end of August, which is equivalent to a 1.7-fold increase on the previous year.

The town of Omori is home to 390 people among 170 families. These people requested a "Park and Ride" system to Iwami Kotsu (headquarters in Masuda) last April to reduce the number of tourists' cars entering the town. People park their cars in a new free parking lot (with a capacity of 400 cars and 11 buses) 2.5 kilometers south of the area, and take a shuttle bus to the town. People are also discouraged from visiting the most popular site, the "Ryugenji Mabu (Mine Shaft)" at the foot of the mine by car. Instead, public buses (with a capacity 43 people) shuttle to and from the town area. Due to the increase in the number of tourists, the original nine round trips were increased to 18 roundtrips for weekdays and 35 for weekends and holidays. Along the narrow road where even passenger cars can barely pass, residents and visitors alike are suffering from exhaust fumes from the buses.

During the autumn tourist season, people flood into the town. "Weekday overcrowding turns into weekend chaos," sighs a community association official.
Although it is only 30 minutes on foot from the town to the mine shaft, many tourists choose to wait for the bus. Many full buses go by until we can get on," the official added.


Responding to the complaints, the bus company has increased the service, resulting in nearly 100 shuttles on weekdays. The buses are always overcrowded and the residents can't use them. Moreover, the residents have to put up with exhaust fumes, noise, vibrations, etc.
"It's not a local bus anymore -- it's turned into a tourist bus," complains the official.
It didn't take long before the residents called for action.
いつも満員のバスには住民も乗れない。「もはや路線バスじゃない。 観光バスだ」。加えて排ガス、騒音、振動。住民が悲鳴を上げるまで時間はかからなかった。

In December last year, Omori Community Council decided to petition the city of Oda to abolish the running of the local bus.

One week after the petition, a 110 cm by 50 cm rock weighing 80 kg rolled down the slope alongside the bus route, right in front of the mine shaft. It was midnight, and luckily no one was injured, but the falling rock was exactly what the petitioners had predicted might occur as a result of the vibrations from the buses. An investigation confirmed that work to prevent falling rocks would take about two years to complete, which added pressure to do away with the local bus.

So it was decided that the local bus service that shuttles people between the mine shaft and the town would be abolished. Although there were pros and cons to the decision, one resident stated flatly, "If we get rid of the buses, tourists and physically challenged people may be (negatively) affected. Still, we residents live here all our lives. We can't live with such anxiety."

On the second autumn after its registration as a world heritage site, Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine will switch its policy to promoting sightseeing on foot. It has plans to introduce two hybrid buses that use both electric motors and conventional combustion engines along the "Park and Ride" routes from next fiscal year.

There are also plans to introduce emission-free electric buses, although not as a replacement for the lost local buses. Instead, they will cruise around the world heritage sites, limited to a walking speed of 5 km/hour and yielding to pedestrians. On Sept. 21, the "ultimate eco-car" was launched at the site, too. Three velotaxis (motorized tricycle taxis) with the capacity for two adults and one child were introduced. The driver also acts as a tour guide.

The decision of this small town in the Sanin area was heard throughout the nation. The aim for "coexistence of a world heritage site with the environment" has also been included in the residents' charter of Omori town: "Our residents have to live here every day of their lives. We are committed to serving the people and Iwami Ginzan. We dedicate ourselves to conserving our history, relics and nature for future generations."

Yukio Nishimura, a professor at Tokyo University specializing in city planning, cites an example from 1995 when another travel spot, Shirakawa-go in Gifu Prefecture, had to build a parking lot over paddy fields following a rapid increase in the number of tourists after its registration as a world heritage site. "I hope that Iwami Ginzan will study the 'good' of various areas while avoiding the 'bad,' and become a place where people from across the nation can visit and learn."

毎日新聞 2008年9月22日 東京朝刊
(Mainichi Japan) September 23, 2008
Regulator tip-offs defeat purpose of safety inspections

Some baffling facts are emerging over how the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries conducts its inspections -- specifically, giving companies warning in advance.

Giving advance warning of inspections is like a pitcher warning a runner on base that he's going to throw a pickoff. He has no chance of getting the runner out; no, it's as if the pitcher doesn't even want to get him out.

Think back 40 years. In the Kanemi-oil PCB poisoning scandal, where polychlorinated biphenyls were mixed in with rice bran oil, there were vast numbers of chickens dying on poultry farms months before reports of humans falling ill.

When it was discovered that cooking oil used to create their feed was the cause, the ministry went down to their factory in Kitakyushu to perform an inspection, since animal feed is part of their jurisdiction. But after the operator told them the oil was "OK," they simply left it at that.

If, at the time, the Farm Ministry had contacted the then-Ministry of Health and Welfare, which was in charge of food hygiene, asked it to have a look -- just to be on the safe side -- the contamination could have been confirmed, and the damage to humans limited. However, they say that they were just staying within their jurisdiction.

In Akira Kurosawa's "Ikiru," the protagonist is a local bureaucrat hopelessly dedicated to his job yet stricken with an incurable disease. Making a fresh start, he vows to "stand first for the people, and go the extra mile as a bureaucrat, working beyond his jurisdiction."

At his funeral, his boss remarks smugly: "That's the kind of thing someone who knows nothing about local government would say." His fellow desk jockeys nod their assent.

The film was made in 1952. So much time has passed, yet the reality has not lost its color, because nothing much has changed. (Column by Kenji Tamaki, Expert Senior Writer, Mainichi Shimbun Editorial Board)

毎日新聞 2008年9月23日 2時32分
(Mainichi Japan) September 20, 2008
Financial crisis (Pt. 3): No end to the worst crisis since WWII
金融崩壊:リーマン・ショック/下 戦後最悪の危機続く

"It's like a blood clot in a hopelessly tangled blood vessel." Following the Lehman Brothers collapse, the short-term interest rate for dollars traded between banks shot up more than 10 percent for some financial institutions. One U.K. bank stated that some banks may collapse due to a lack of liquidity, with no end in sight for the worst financial crisis since WWII, and the Sept. 18 announcement by major central banks in Japan, America, and Europe indicated that they would cooperate in supplying significant dollar funding to short-term money markets in an attempt to alleviate anxiety.

But confusion caused by the Lehman Brothers collapse continues. According to a major securities company, the decision on Sept. 16 to provide public support to AIG, a major American insurance corporation, raised hopes that the worst had passed. However, stock markets in New York were universally down on Sept. 17. Markets in Tokyo and Asia fell on Sept. 18, increasing the general anxiety.

The markets are voicing increasing dissatisfaction with financial authorities. According to a Japanese bank analyst, "there is absolutely no sense that they have a desire or strategy to actively strengthen their involvement in reducing credit instability." There is also a strong distrust of American financial authorities, that in a span of just two days flip-flopped on their policy for public support.

U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson hasn't made a public appearance since the Sept. 16 decision to prop up AIG. Facing criticism, White House press secretary Dana Perino uncomfortably commented on Sept. 17 that the "Treasury Secretary is working hard," but didn't touch on what the market really wants to know; specifically, the standards for providing public support.

The fearful and suspicious market also turned on major U.S. securities firms -- firms that were supposed to be stable. On Sept. 17, shares of Morgan Stanley, the second largest securities firm in the U.S., temporarily dropped 44 percent in the New York market, forcing them to pursue mergers with multiple financial institutions.

Investors are pulling their money out of the stock market and putting it into gold and U.S. bonds, regarded as the safer bet. During trading on Sept. 17 the price of gold jumped 70 dollars, its greatest increase ever, and the interest on three-month U.S. bonds dropped to 0.03 percent, the lowest level since WWII.

The financial market upheaval has also affected the economies of developing nations, which have been supporting global growth.

On Sept. 15, the People's Bank of China discarded its inflation control policy, lowering interest rates for the first time in six years and seven months, a shocking reduction in the interest rate that followed less than half a day after the announcement of the Lehman Brothers collapse.

"Vice Premier Wang Qishan, head of Chinese financial affairs, was in Los Angeles for Cabinet-level talks between the U.S. and China on Sept. 15. After seeing the impact of the Lehman Brothers collapse first-hand, he probably bypassed People's Bank of China President Zhou Xiaochan to directly convince Premier Wen Jiabao," speculates one financial insider.

Regardless, stock markets continued to drop after this rate reduction, with dark clouds starting to color Chinese economic trends that had been universally optimistic following the end of the Beijing Olympics.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) tentatively estimates that losses from subprime loans "will reach 1.1 trillion dollars (115 trillion yen) worldwide," and IMF Managing Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn warned that the financial crisis may worsen.
"The consequences for some financial institutions are still in front of us. We expect that in the coming weeks or months there will be more financial institutions that will have problems."

毎日新聞 2008年9月19日 東京朝刊
(Mainichi Japan) September 21, 2008
Unusual all-red dragonfly found at Tokyo museum
トンボ:体も羽も赤いトンボ 都内2例目、ビオトープで見つかる--北区 /東京

The red dragonfly, Sept. 19, 2008.The Kita-ku Fureai Insect Information Center made an unusual find in its biotope: an all-red dragonfly, only the second one ever found in the metropolitan area, and which has been tentatively identified as a red grasshawk dragonfly.

Museum staff first found the dragonfly on Sept. 3 and managed to take a photo, but it flew off before they could capture it.

The photo was sent to an expert on south-east Asian dragonflies, asking him to identify it, but without a live specimen a positive identification couldn't be made.

According to the expert, the dragonfly could have been swept up by a low pressure air system, accidently imported along with some water plants, or brought in to the country for breeding purposes and escaped.

毎日新聞 2008年9月20日 地方版
(Mainichi Japan) September 19, 2008
Japan needs to rethink emergency economic measures in wake of U.S. financial crisis
社説:米国発金融危機 日本は緊急施策の見直しを

The U.S. financial crisis, which has triggered the collapse of major financial institutions and prompted government bailouts, will have harmful consequences for the Japanese economy.

Japan's real GDP shrank in the second quarter (April to June) at an annualized rate of 3 percent compared with the previous quarter, and there are no signs that a recovery is underway in the third quarter, which ends on Sep. 30. If the financial crisis sends the U.S. economy into a deep recession, not only will Japan's exports fall off but also private-sector facilities investment will dry up. And if corporate performance deteriorates, workers' wages will stagnate, and personal consumption will decline.

While these developments could set off a global depression, the Liberal Democratic Party, which is in the midst of a presidential election, and politicians on the whole have been oblivious to them.

On Wednesday, the government convened an economic and fiscal consultative meeting, the first such meeting since it adopted a comprehensive economic stimulus package on Aug. 29. The intent of the economic stimulus package is to jumpstart the Japanese economy, which is facing a global downturn triggered by the U.S. subprime crisis and high oil prices. The most urgent measures in the package are supposed to be implemented right away.

But during the three weeks that have passed since the end of last month, the global economy has been jarred by upheaval. Hence, the implications of recent developments for the Japanese economy have also changed. The recent upheaval notwithstanding, Japan's politicians have yet to muster a response. And Wednesday's economic and fiscal consultative meeting did not go beyond analyzing the current situation.

The more urgent the policy, the greater the caution that will need to be exercised to implement measures to carry it out. At one time, the price of oil had soared to 140 dollars a barrel, but has since fallen to 90 dollars a barrel. It is only natural, then, that the measures in the emergency stimulus package that address high oil prices be given a second look.

If the U.S. financial crisis grows more severe, Japanese financial institutions may be compelled to screen borrowers more strictly and be more apt to restrict lending. But small and medium-sized firms would bear the brunt of such changes. That is why measures that aim to give a shot in the arm to the finance sector or to prevent cutbacks in lending will become even more important.

Furthermore, if exports languish for a long period of time, and the value of the yen continues to climb in foreign exchange markets, companies will try to restore their competitiveness by squeezing their subcontractors to extract lower prices from them. The government will then have to respond by beefing up its measures to protect subcontractors.

Though a political vacuum exists today, any attempt by the current administration to slack off and postpone economic management and policy decisions will not be tolerated. As has been the case in the U.S. financial crisis, conditions in Japan can change drastically in a flash. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda's Cabinet must shoulder the responsibility of managing the economy until the next prime minister is designated in the extraordinary Diet session. Since the government has already adopted a stimulus package, it must, while assessing events as they unfold, conduct a review of its emergency economic measures and seek to give them concrete shape.

It is still not clear when the supplementary budget to fund additional fiscal measures will be compiled and deliberated in the Diet. Though the general elections are looming, it is absurd that the LDP has still not determined its own policy on this issue.

Since the global economy is changing from moment to moment, the proper way to manage the Japanese economy would be to assess new developments accurately and then devise the necessary remedies.

毎日新聞 2008年9月18日 0時19分
(Mainichi Japan) September 18, 2008
U.S. should prevent a financial crisis chain reaction
社説:リーマン破綻 危機の連鎖、米は全力で防げ

With the housing bubble in the U.S. finally triggering the bankruptcy of long-established securities corporation Lehman Brothers, and fellow major brokerage Merrill Lynch narrowly escaping collapse by selling itself, the collapse of the nerve center of the finance industry -- and the pride of the U.S. -- has rocked the securities and financial market worldwide.

However, Meltdown Monday's chain reaction cannot proceed unchecked. Japanese banks also have a 170 billion yen loan commitment in Lehman, and anxiety on how it will directly and indirectly influence Japan has spread. This may result in an unexpected and heavy blow, as countless financial institutions and investors are interrelated with various markets via complex financial products. The U.S. authorities should take all the necessary measures to avoid events expanding into a global depression.

The U.S. government's injection of the equivalent of over 20 trillion yen into government-affiliated housing finance companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac -- while leaving Lehman out in the cold -- is, in a sense, understandable. Fannie and Freddie have huge amounts of debt from overseas financial institutions under the implicit guarantee of the U.S. government, and if the U.S. allowed those two companies to collapse, the discredited dollar would crash, triggering global chaos. The influence on the housing market was also considered too serious.

And while Lehman may have been the fourth largest U.S. brokerage, it still falls short of the scale of Fannie and Freddie. Furthermore, its business contacts are financial institutions and professional investors: Pumping in tax money for failure caused by sloppy risk management could lead to problems in future, while also serving to establish a precedent for major automotive manufactures or other private sectors.

Still, if a chain reaction of collapses were to start, or if it threw the market into a panic, we can't simply stick to the principle of self-responsibility. When the Japanese bad loan mess intensified, the U.S. government required an all-out policy mobilization in order "to avoid financial crisis induced by Japan." The same should go for the U.S.

This crisis has long since moved on from being a management problem at one lone financial institution, and has now caused the finance industry to crumble -- the very foundation of the securities business on which American capitalism was based -- thanks to overconfidence in highly-developing financial technologies and a global money glut, while disregarding risk evaluation, the basics of basics.

It's only logical that the price would eventually be paid by the country that danced on the bubble. The global economy will not tolerate a joint suicide.

毎日新聞 2008年9月17日 0時25分
(Mainichi Japan) September 15, 2008
Japanese diners enjoy 'Table for Two' with African children
知りたい!:広がるTFT ランチから20円、アフリカの子供に

Masahisa KogureWorried about metabolic syndrome? Why not curb your calories at lunch while subsidizing food aid for children in Africa?
社員食堂でカロリー控えめのランチを取って食事代の一部をアフリカの子供への給食支援に充てる「テーブル・フォー・ツー(TABLE FOR TWO=TFT)」運動が広まっている。

Such a fantastic idea has been made reality through a scheme called "Table for Two (TFT)." The movement, initiated in Japan, has been adopted in India and has prompted the United States and Britain to follow suit.
Through the program, diners at cafeterias of companies and other establishments participating in the project donate 20 yen each time they have lunch, which becomes food aid for African children. Why 20 yen? That is about what it costs to provide one meal in Africa.
So far, 61 companies and organizations in Japan are participating in the program, which is expected to improve their employees' health while making an international contribution.

While about 850 million people are suffering from starvation in developing countries, approximately 1.6 billion people around the world are overweight, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

In order to balance such a disparity, Masaakira James Kondo, associate professor at the University of Tokyo, and other young leaders from political and business circles in Japan hatched the idea for the campaign. They named it "Table for Two," with the image in their mind of sharing a dining table with children in developing countries.

The donations are collected by the TFT secretariat and are then distributed to Uganda, Rwanda and Malawi by way of the U.N. World Food Program (WFP) and other international organizations.

Masahisa Kogure, 35, chief of the TFT secretariat, visited Uganda in early June. Driving for five hours from the country's capital, he reached a poor village in a mountainous area, where the only way to make a living is by growing bananas and corn.

At a primary and secondary school he visited, porridge was being distributed to children for breakfast. Their lunch was corn flour paste with soup of beans and vegetables.

Because children in the village are an important labor force for fetching water and taking care of goats, enrollment at the schools had been poor. However, the number of students sharply increased from about 380 to about 630 two years ago after the school started to provide meals to children.

"Our students started to talk about their future jobs and dreams," the principal of the school told Kogure, referring to the change that was brought about by providing school meals to children.

In 2000, the United Nations set the Millennium Development Goals, which are aimed at reducing poverty in developing countries. Seventy-nine villages in 10 African countries were designated as model regions called "Millennium Villages." The village that Kogure visited is one of them.

The recent rising food prices, however, appears to pose a threat to the U.N. program. Instead of using costly corn, the school started to reduce the amount of school meals and serve biscuits instead.

The school also started growing saplings of vegetables in the schoolyard in order to relieve the adverse effect from the rising grain market. The school also gives out saplings to local residents and asks them to bring in part of the harvested vegetables to the school as ingredients for school meals. Parents of the students also participate in cooking school meals.

"School meals prompted local residents to form a new community centered around the school. I strongly felt the importance of school meal aid," said Kogure.

Sumitomo Chemical Co., one of the participants of the TFT campaign, has donated about 600,000 yen through the program since the company joined the drive in May this year.

The TFT secretariat has so far made about 185,000 meals worth of donations to Africa, according to the organization. For more information, call the TFT secretariat at: 03-5771-4117.

毎日新聞 2008年9月13日 東京夕刊
(Mainichi Japan) September 15, 2008
Respect for the Aged Day

The little girl Nelly was close to her next door neighbor, Bartholomew. When she was a toddler, the old man took her on walks in a stroller, and when she began to totter about on her own, he lent her a helping hand when she needed one. As Nelly grew up, Bartholomew grew older.

One day, Bartholomew got injured and had to use a wheelchair. So Nelly began to push him around in it and take him on walks, just as he had done for her when she was little. As the days passed, they made "special trades" for everything -- the baby stroller for the wheel chair, the helping hand of the old man for the helping hand of the young girl.

"A Special Trade," by Sally Wittman (translated by Shuntaro Tanigawa as "Tottoki no tokkaekko"), is an American picture book that gracefully tells us how we should treat the elderly that we encounter. Indeed, as we live our lives, we all trade in one role for another.

Today is Respect-for-the-Aged Day, and it is quite sad to hear depressing tales of grandchildren who steal from, or even kill their grandparents. And due to the shortage of young workers, the elderly are forced to rely increasingly on foreign workers to provide their nursing and home care. As long as the nuclear family displaces the extended family, and people live longer, the gulf between generations will continue to widen.

And as the income gap increases, young low-income earners and the elderly will suffer the most.

In the October issue of "Sekai" magazine, psychiatrist Inada Nada and author Karin Amamiya have called on young people and the elderly to join hands to "change Japan," and are urging that more respect be given to the spirit of mutual assistance rather than the concept of self-responsibility.

In this summer's hit movie, "Ponyo on the Edge of a Cliff by the Sea," there is a nursery school situated right next to a nursing home for the aged. The director Hayao Miyazaki apparently believes that "mutual support between generations" begins with exchanges between children and the elderly. To respect the aged is to sustain the hope to live.

("Yoroku," a front-page column in the Mainichi Shimbun)
毎日新聞 2008年9月15日 0時11分
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01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

01 あいさつ
02 別れのあいさつ
03 声をかけるとき
04 感謝の言葉と答え方
05 謝罪の言葉と答え方
06 聞き直すとき
07 相手の言うことがわからないとき
08 うまく言えないとき
09 一般的なあいづち
10 よくわからないときの返事
11 強めのあいづち
12 自分について述べるとき
13 相手のことを尋ねるとき
14 頼みごとをするとき
15 申し出・依頼を断るとき
16 許可を求めるとき
17 説明してもらうとき
18 確認を求めるとき
19 状況を知りたいとき
20 値段の尋ね方と断り方
21 急いでもらいたいとき
22 待ってもらいたいとき
23 日時・場所・天候を尋ねるとき
24 その他

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